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Literature- and poster projects
of the real lizards, family Lacertidae
Zootoca WAGLER, 1830
Adnagulov, E.V. (2017) -
An annotated list of amphibian and reptile species of the Russian Far East is presented with due account of modern data on the taxa systematics. 13 Amphibian species and 27 reptile ones have been reliably registered by now, including several random sea species.
Аднагулов Э.В. (2017) -
Приводится аннотированный список видов земноводных и пресмыкающихся Дальнего Востока России с учётом современных данных по систематике таксонов. К настоящему времени достоверно зарегистрировано 13 видов амфибий и 27 видов рептилий, включая случайно заплывающих морских видов.
Adnagulov, E.V. & Oleinikov, A.Yu. (2006) -
The paper reports on the distribution and ecology of amphibians and reptiles in the south of the Russian Far East,
including previously unstudied areas within Khabarovsk Kray, Primorskiy Kray, and Yevreyskaya Autonomous
Oblast’ (209 localities in total) studied in 1998 – 2004.
Aellen, V. & Perret, J.L. (1953) -
Agasyan, A. & Avci, A. & Tuniyev, B. & Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J. & Lymberakis, P. & Andrén, C. & Cogalniceau, D. & Wilkinson, J. & Ananjeva, N. & Üzüm, N. & Orlov, N. & Podloucky, R. & Tuniyev, S. & Kaya, U. & Böhme, W. & Nettmann, H.K. & Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J. & Jogerf, U. & Cheylan, M. & Pérez-Mellado, V. & Borczyk, B. & Sterijovsky, B. & Westerström, A. & Schmidt, B. (2010) -
Al-Sadoon, M.K. (1987) -
Aerobic and anaerobic metabolic rates were determined at temperatures between 20°C and 35°C for the viviparous lizard, Lacerta vivipara. Both parameters were found to be maximal around the preferred body temperature (30°C) with a low thermal temperature dependence above PBT. It is noted that L. vivipara does not need a large rate of anaerobic support and aerobic metabolism could supply the energy needed for activity.
Al-Sadoon, M.K. & Spellerberg, I.F. (1985) -
Oxygen consumption levels and metabolic rate temperature curves of various lizard species from three different climatic regions were examined in relation to ambient temperature. The species used in this research were as follows: Anguis fragilis, Lacerta vivipara, Lacerta agilis (cool temperate species); Blanus cinereus, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis lilfordi brauni, Podarcis lilfordi lilfordi, Podarcis muralis, Psammodromus algirus, Tarentola mauritanica (warm temperate species); Chalcides ocellatus, Acanthodactylus opheodurus, Acanthodactylus schmidti (desert species). A double chamber volumetric closed system was used to measure the resting oxygen consumption of the lizards. Acute oxygen consumption determinations were made, that is the lizards were not allowed to acclimate to the test temperatures. Interspecific differences in levels of resting oxygen consumption and in the characteristics of the metabolic rate temperature curves were examined in relation to methods of thermoregulation and in relation to the ecology of the respective species. Evidence for `temperature dependent shifts` and `low thermal dependence` was found in the metabolic rate temperature curves of some species. A diminishing Q10 at or below the voluntary body temperatures suggests some degree of metabolic homeostatsis and energy conservation.
The ocellated lizard, Chalcides ocellatus, and the common lizard, Lacerta vivipara, were acclimated to two temperature regimes (10 and 30 degrees C with 12L:12D photoperiod) for 2 weeks. The oxygen consumption rates were measured for both species at temperatures between 5 and 35 degrees C. Cold acclimation was observed in L. vivipara and was in the form of an upward translation of the metabolic rate-temperature curve in comparison to the warm-acclimated lizards (30 degrees C). Chalcides ocellatus showed a response to cold acclimation by decreasing its metabolism only at 10 degrees C.
Acute oxygen consumption determ inations for both adults and sub-adults of L. vivipara were made over the temperature range 5-30°C during summer and winter. D uring winter dormancy, both adults and sub-adults were found to have a m etabolic rate l ower than t h e metabolic rate of s u m m er animals at each experim ental temperature. This reduction of oxygen consumption in winter lizards can be interpreted as an `inverse compensation` ( Precht`s Type ) pattern of response). It is concluded that this adj ustment can reduce energy costs during the winter period and is a pre-requisite for survival during winte r dormancy.
Alge, R. (1999) -
Almaca, C. (1971) -
Die landgebundenen Wirbeltiere des festländischen Iberiens (Süßwasserfische, Amphibien, Reptilien mit Ausnahme der Meeresschildkröten, Säugetiere mit Ausnahme der Chiroptera, Pinnipedia und Cetacea) bilden, wie im einzelnen gezeigt wird, in ihrer Gesamtheit eine besondere faunistische Einheit: ungefähr die Hälfte der Formen (Spezies oder Subspezies) ist endemisch; das gilt für 73 % der echten Süßwasserfische, 47 % der Amphibien, 36 % der Reptilien und 53 % der Säugetiere. Die geographische Isolierung durch die Pyrenäen und das Mittelmeer ist gewiß die Hauptursache für die Entwicklung einer so eigenartigen Fauna, aber auch andere Faktoren (die sehr verschiedenen Klimate und Biotope innerhalb Iberiens, der im Vergleich mit anderen Gebieten Europas geringere Einfluß der Vereisungen usw. haben sicher ebenfalls eine sehr wichtige Rolle gespielt.
Acanthodactylus erythrurus erythrurus, Algyroides hidalgoi, Algyroides marchi marchi, Algyroides marchi niethammeri, Lacerta agilis agilis, Lacerta hispanica hispanica, Lacerta hispanica bocagei, Lacerta hispanica vaucheri, Lacerta lepida lepida, Lacerta lepida nevadensis, Lacerta monticola monticola, Lacerta monticola cantabrica, Lacerta monticola cyreni, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta viridis viridis, Lacerta vivipara, Psammodromus algirus algirus, Psammodromus hispanicus hispanicus, Psammodromus hispanicus edwardsianus.
Amat Orriols, F. (2011) -
Morphologic diversity was studied in 129 species of lacertid lizards and their relationship with ecology by means of comparative analysis on seven linear morphometric measurements. Body size is the most important variable determining, a continuum among small bodied species and larger ones independently evolved through the lacertid phylogeny. This variable is strongly and positively correlated with the others masking the patterns of morphologic diversity. Multivariate analysis on size-adjusted variables show a negative covariation among relative tail and limb length. Remarkably, arboreal and semiarboreal species (Takydromus and the Equatorial African clade) appeared two times independently during the evolution of lacertids and are characterized by extremely long tails, and relatively long forelimbs in comparison with hindlimb length. The arboreal and glider lizard Holaspis with their short tail constitute the only exception. Another case of convergence is found by some species dwelling into dense vegetation or grass (Tropidosaura, Lacerta agilis, Takydromus amurensis or Zootoca) which have long tails and short limbs. On the opposite, species living in deserts, steppes or scrublands with scarce vegetation isolated into extended open areas have developed long hindlimbs and short forelimbs to achieve higher speed and maneuverability This is especially the case of Acanthodactylus and Eremias.
Ananjeva, N. & Borkin, L. & Darevsky, I. & Orlov, N. (1988) -
Ananjeva, N.B. & Borkin, L.Y. & Darevsky, I.S. & Orlov, N.L. (1998) -
Ananjeva, N.B. & Orlov, N.L. & Khalikov, R.G. & Darevsky, I.S. & Ryabov, S.A. & Barabanov, A.V. (2006) -
DISTRIBUTION. One of the most widely distributed Eurasian
species. A common species in the northern half of Eurasia from
Ireland and the Pyrenean Peninsula in the west to the Shantarskie
islands, the Sakhalin island and northern Japan in the east. It occurs
in Mongolia, in the Mongolian Altai, in Bain-Ulug, Khubsugul
and Central aimaks, China (Chinese Altai in the Xinjiang-Uyghur
Autonomous Region). In Russia the northern border of the distribution
range from the coast of the Kola Peninsula in the north-west
continues behind the Polar Circle up to the lower current of Yenisei
River. Further to the east it crossed the valleys of Lena River and its
tributaries (Vilyui and Aldan). In Far East it comes out to the sea
somewhat to the south of the valley of the river Uda. The southern
border of the distribution range from the Trans-Carpathians
continues to the east between forest-steppe and steppe. In
Ukraine the most southern, evidently isolated habitats are known
in the Novomoskovsk district of the Dnepropetrovsk region. It occurs
everywhere on the Sakhalin Island. On the whole extensive
distribution area of the viviparous lizard four subspecies are distinguished:
Zootoca vivipara carniolica Mayer, Böhme, Tiedemann
& Bischoff, 2000, Zootoca vivipara pannonica (Lac & Kluch, 1968),
Zootoca vivipara sachalinensis (Pereleshin & Terentjev, 1963) and
Zootoca vivipara vivipara (Jacquin, 1787). In North Eurasia the
subspecies Z. v. vivipara (Jacquin, 1787) and Zootoca vivipara sachalinensis
(Pereleshin & Terentjev, 1963) are distributed.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species does not require special
measures on its protection.
Andrada, J. (1980) -
Andrén, C. (2004) -
Amphibian and reptile species likely to occur in the Simpevarp SKB special
area of investigation are listed with comments on their distribution, status, biology
and environmental demands. The species are Triturus vulgaris (Smooth newt),
T cristatus (Great crested newt), Bufo bufo (Common toad), Rana arvalis (Moor frog),
R temporaria (Common frog), Lacerta agilis (Sand lizard), L vivipara (Common
lizard), Anguis fragilis (Slow-worm), Coronella austriaca (Smooth snake), Natrix
natrix (Grass snake) and Vipera berus (Adder). A short field study was performed
mainly to verify the presence of suitable habitats for the species listed. Findings of
amphibians and reptiles as well as their potential habitats are noted by geographical
codes and additional remarks are given to interesting findings. Altogether 38 findings
of five different species of amphibians and reptiles were done in 18 localities. Of special
interest is the record of sand lizard, which probably indicate a colony in the vicinity
even though this could not be confirmed.
Andreone, F. (2003) -
Andreone, F. & Sindaco, R. (1989) -
Angel, F. (1946) -
Angel, M.F. (1927) -
Anonymous (2003) -
Anonymous (2010) -
Antczak, M. & Ekner-Grzyb, A. & Majláth, I. & Majláthová, V. & Bona, M. & Hromada, M. & Tryjanowski, P. (2019) -
Predation is one of the most important factors affecting biology, ecology and behaviour of the prey. We have studied predation of the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) by the great grey shrike (Lanius excubitor) in farmland habitats in western Poland. Shrike caches were used as a source of information about preyed lizards. Shrikes hunt significantly more adult males than females, juveniles and sub-adults; the pattern was similar over all three study years. Male lizard had longer activity time than female; therefore, they seem to be under predation pressure for a longer time during breeding season. Capture and count transect data of common lizard populations living within and outside shrike territories showed significant seasonal differences: within shrike territories, there was lower proportion of males than females; moreover, in some territories, the number of males in the lizard population was negatively correlated with the number of males impaled by shrikes. Our findings suggest that in this particular predator-prey system, shrikes may be a strong selective force for lizards’ population dynamics. Male-biased predation could be caused by differences in the behaviour of adult male and female lizards, namely longer activity of males and differences in space and refuge use.
Antipov, S.A. & Doronin, I.V. & Milto, K.D. & Sergeev M.A. (2018) -
New data on the distribution of 10 amphibian and 6 reptile species in the Vladimir Region is given. The list of species contains 198 new records including such rare species as Bombina bombina and Coronella austriaca.
Антипов С.А. & Доронин И.В. & Мильто К.Д. & Сергеев М. А. (2018) -
Приводятся новые данные по распространению 10 видов земноводных и 6 видов пресмыкающихся во Владимирской области. Список содержит 198 новых находок, включая такие редкие виды, как Bombina bombina и Coronella austriaca.
Aragon, P. & Clobert, J. & Massot, M. (2006) -
The effects of immigration on the behaviour of residents may have important implications for the local population characteristics. A manipulative laboratory experiment with yearlings of the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) was performed to test whether the introduction of dispersing or philopatric individuals influences the shortterm spacing behaviour of resident individuals. Staged encounters were carried out to induce interactions within dyads. The home cage of each responding individual was connected by a corridor to an unfamiliar “arrival cage” to measure the latency to leave their own home cage after each encounter. Our results showed that the time that pairs spent in close proximity was longer when a dispersing individual was introduced in the home cage. The latency to leave the home cage was longer after the introduction of a dispersing individual. These response variables were not influenced by the relative body sizes of contestants nor by the level of aggression towards each other. In contrast, the aggressive response was significantly influenced by the residency asymmetry established experimentally (“owner” of the home cage vs introduced individual). Our results suggest that the space use by resident individuals is influenced by the dispersal status of conspecifics. The potential ultimate causes driving this effect are discussed.
Aragon, P. & Massot, M. & Gasparini, J. & Clobert, J. (2006) -
The use of information from chemical cues about the presence of conspecifics and their social interactions may be advantageous because it allows individuals to assess the social environment in the absence of the signallers. We tested experimentally whether the selection of nocturnal shelters by juveniles of the common lizard was influenced by the scent marks from three isolated or three socially housed adult males or females, keeping constant the number of donors for all treatments. We gave each juvenile a choice between a shelter containing odours from adults and a shelter with no odour and we compared the response to odours from three adults housed singly with that to odours from three adults that had the opportunity to interact. The shelter site selection of juveniles was influenced by the odour of socially housed adult males, but not by that of isolated males, and partly depended on the mother’s site of origin and the juvenile’s body condition. This study shows that juveniles use social information from conspecific chemical cues and that various phenotypes may use this information in different ways.
Aragón, P. & Meylan, S. & Clobert, J. (2006) -
1. Individuals following different strategies such as philopatry or dispersal may also differ in other phenotypic traits, since dispersing individuals have to face novel physical and social environments. There is growing evidence of the use of information obtained from conspecifics in a variety of contexts. It has been demonstrated that before natal dispersal, juveniles of Lacerta vivipara use social information through conspecific chemical cues, and that various phenotypes use this information differently. We hypothesized that, after dispersal, the behavioural responses of yearlings to different social environments assessed through conspecific odours depend on the dispersal status.
2. We tested the response of philopatric and dispersing yearlings of L. vivipara to different types of social cues, controlling for the prenatal and postnatal environment. Each yearling was faced with environments with no conspecific odours, with scentmarks from one or three yearlings that were held isolated during captivity, and from three socially housed yearlings. Thus, we examined the response to the number of donors and to the social environment experienced by donors. We recorded the time spent walking and attempting to escape as indicators of activity and avoidance response, respectively.
3. Philopatric and dispersing individuals reacted differently to the social environments presented through odour marks. This dispersal status-dependent response was not modulated by the prenatal and postnatal factors examined.
Armstrong, J.A. (1950) -
1. A description has been given of the normal histological appearance of thalamic, pretectal and midbrain centres related to the optic tracts in Lacerta vivipara. They are compared with corresponding structures described in other reptiles.
2. Silver impregnation of the brain after removal of an eye has revealed axonal and terminal degenerative changes, essentially similar to those which occur in mammals, except that they develop more slowly.
3. Twenty brains prepared by silver impregnation and two treated by the Marchi method have been utilized for the study of the course and distribution of degenerated fibres of retinal origin. Evidence was obtained for the following main conclusions: (a) That the optic nerve contains only afferent fibres. (b) That decussation of the optic nerves is almost, but not quite, complete. (c) That crossed retinal fibres terminate in the lateral geniculate nucleus, in the nucleus geniculatus pretectalis, in the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, in the superficial layers of the optic tectum (including the stratum zonale) and in the nucleus opticus tegmenti. A few may also end in the nucleus pretectalis. (d) That the basal optic root is composed entirely of crossed retinal fibres. (e) That uncrossed retinal fibres form a small fascicle on the outer surface of the optic tract, some probably having connexions in the rostral thalamus with the pars ventralis of the lateral geniculate nucleus. (f) That as the optic tract runs on the lateral surface of the thalamus it contains in its deeper part numerous non-retinal fibres. Many of these appear to cross in the ventral supraoptic decussation.
4. The organization of the visual system in Lacerta has been compared with those in Amphibia and mammals. The possibility of homology has been discussed, with special reference to the lateral geniculate nucleus. This work has been carried out under the direction of Prof. F. Goldby of the Department of Anatomy, St Mary`s Hospital Medical School. I should like to express my thanks for the advice and criticism which he has given throughout.
Arndt, S. (1991) -
Arnold, A. (2012) -
Mit der Ausbreitung von Arten durch menschliche Einflüsse in Gebiete, in denen die zuvor nicht heimisch waren, beschäftigt sich ein ganzer Zweig der Biologie, die Invasionsbiologie. Zwei eher kurios anmutende Beispiele belegen die unbeabsichtigte Verschleppung von Eidechsen in menschlicher Kleidung bzw. im Gepäck.
Arnold, A. (2014) -
Im Nordwesten von Leipzig wurden von 2006 bis August 2013 insgesamt 116 Beobachtungsdaten der vier hier gegenwärtig bodenständigen und einer allochthonen Reptilienarten gesammelt und ausgewertet. Dominierende Art ist mit 58 Nachweisen die Zauneidechse, gefolgt von Ringelnatter (40), Waldeidechse (9), Blindschleiche (8) und der eingeschleppten Mauereidechse mit nur einem Nachweis. Einen relativ hohen Anteil an den Nachweisen haben Totfunde, wovon ganz besonders die Ringelnatter betroffen ist, bei der über 50 % der Nachweise Totfunde sind.
Arnold, E.N. (1973) -
Algyroides fitzingeri, Algyroides marchi, Algyroides moreoticus, Algyroides nigropunctatus, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta lepida, Lacerta princeps, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta andreanszkyi, Lacerta armeniaca, Lacerta bedriagae, Lacerta brandtii, Lacerta cappadocica, Lacerta caucasica, Lacerta chlorogaster, Lacerta cyanura, Lacerta danfordi, Lacerta derjugini, Lacerta dugesii, Lacerta fraasii, Lacerta graeca, Lacerta horvathi, Lacerta jayakari, Lacerta laevis, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta mosorensis, Lacerta oxycephala, Lacerta parva, Lacerta perspicillata, Lacerta praticola, Lacerta rudis, Lacerta saxicola, Lacerta vivipara, Gallotia atlantica, Gallotia galloti, Gallotia simonyi, Podarcis erhardii, Podarcis filfolensis, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis lilfordi, Podarcis melisellensis, Podarcis milensis, Podarcis muralis, Podarcis peloponnesiaca, Podarcis pityusensis, Podarcis sicula, Podarcis taurica, Podarcis tiliguerta, Podarcis wagleriana, Psammodromus algirus, Psammodromus blanci, Psammodromus hispanicus, Psammodromus microdactylus.
Arnold, E.N. (1984) -
The ability to shed (autotomize) all or part of the tail, usually in response to predator attack, and often to subsequently regenerate it is widespread in lizards and amphisbaenians and also occurs in a few snakes and in the tuatara. Most species possess a sophisticated intravertebral autotomy mechanism which seems to be primitive in the Squamata. This appears to have been independently lost in members of many groups, but some agamids and snakes have regained the ability to shed their tails by a simpler intervertebral means and a -number of agamids have also redeveloped tail regeneration as well. Breakable tails are used to evade capture in two main ways: by enabling reptiles to break away from predators that have grasped them by the tail and by providing a distraction which deflects the attention of the attacker away from the vulnerable head and body. It is argued that loss of caudal autotomy has occurred when the costs of tail shedding outweigh its benefits. Likely costs include the expense of regrowing the tail and the loss of a variety of possible tail functions that may cause partial incapacitation, at least until the tail regenerates. Benefits of autotomy are liable to be low if predation is rare, if the animal is able to protect itself effectively in other ways, if it is too slow to evade further pursuit after the tail is shed, or if the tail is small or unpalatable and consequently not likely to distract a predator. Benefit variation may well be greater than cost variation and therefore more important in initiating the loss of autotomy mechanisms. Many taxa that do not shed the tail appear to conform to the above interpretation, but in some cases, such as the Platynota, Agamidae and Chamaeleonidae, lack of intravertebral autotomy may reflect the history of these groups rather than being a direct result of present ecological pressures. The distribution of intervertebral autotomy in the Agamidae suggests that it may have evolved only in rather special circumstances where tail fragility is advantageous even in the absence of the ability to regenerate. Restriction ot autotomy planes to the tail-base, so that the whole organ is lost, a condition found in a number of relatively slow-moving geckoes, is interpreted as a means of ensuring that enough of the tail is shed to distract a predator from further pursuit. The stimulus necessary to induce autotomy can vary rapidly in individual lizards and at least some of these changes probably maximize the effectiveness of the tail-shedding mechanism. Differences in the readiness with which all or part of the tail is shed exist between species and are likely to reflect the balance of costs and benefits in particular cases. Variations in incidence of broken tails between species and populations may be due to such differences in fragility but many other factors may play a part, including the age structure of samples, incidence of unsuccessful attacks by predators and ability to evade predators after autotomy. There is a clear tendency for climbing lizards, especially those living on rock surfaces, to have higher incidences of broken tails than ground-dwelling species, perhaps because the tail is usually less important in locomotion in the first group. Many lizards possess conspicuously coloured tails and tail movements that seem likely to help distract attention from the head and body. Conspicuous tail colouring is more frequent and often better developed in young animals, which tend to be more vulnerable than adults, and in active species from open habitats where crypsis may not always be very effective. Conspicuous tails usually have contrasting light and dark areas in nocturnal forms but are often a single bright colour in diurnal ones, probably reflecting the visual capacities of their respective predators. The predominance of blue tails in day-active species may be because this colour is striking close to but not very arresting at a distance, so it may not attract predators from far away while still drawing their attention at close quarters.
Arnold, E.N. (1986) -
The basic anatomy of the lacertid hemipenis (intromittent organ) and methods for its investigation are described. In many members of the Lacertidae, the hemipenis has a structure quite unlike that of other squamate reptiles: the distal lobes of the retracted organ are complexly folded and there is a well-defined supporting structure of dense connective tissue, the armature. This incorporates blood sinuses and has an intramuscular portion embedded in the m. retractor penis magnus and two club-shaped bodies, the clavulae, that support the lobes in the erect organ. Unarmatured hemipenes occur in some lacertids and, like those of other squamates, possess sac-like lobes in the retracted state, but they are singular in having the lobes invested by the m. retractor penis magnus. It is argued that many of these apparently primitive hemipenes are in fact secondary derivatives of the armatured type.
There is considerable inter-specific variation in hemipenial structure which is described systematically. In some cases this involves differences in size, asymmetry and simplification, which may arise as physical isolating mechanisms and is useful in distinguishing otherwise very similar species, particularly in the genus Mesalina (p. 1253). Other shared derived hemipenial features provide useful information about relationships between species and higher taxa and a summary of the hypotheses that they support is given (p. 1254).
The structure of copulatory organs is used very widely in systematics, both for differentiating species and for working out relationships. Differences between taxa may arise from a variety of sources, including non-homology, differences in other parts of the animal, direct selection on copulatory organs, development of physical isolating mechanisms and pleiotropic events. Physical isolating mechanisms seem likely to account for the abrupt differences, involving size, asymmetry and simplifications, that are useful in distinguishing very similar lacertid species. Although these differences usually seem to arise at the end of a speciation event they can simultaneously be the initiating mechanism in a second one. Copulatory organs appear to have high inherent stability, probably resulting from frequent location in strongly homoeostatic environments, single function, insensitivity to niche shift and inertia due to the need to conform to the genitalia of the opposite sex. This stability may be overridden at times by direct selection on the organs themselves or pleiotropic events. Such changes tend to be retained because efficiency in copulation depends not on any absolute genital architecture but on close conformity of the organs. It is the combination of relative stability and tangible input of varied change, which tends to be retained, that so often makes these structures good indicators of relationship.
Arnold, E.N. (1987) -
Twenty-four species of lacertid lizards were examined at 31 sites in western Yogoslavia, Greece and Iberia. Comparative observations were made on over 4500 individual lizards, noting such features as times of activitiy, hunting methods, diet, micro- and macrohabitat, refuges used and body temperature. These data are used as a basis for assessing resource partition in related sympatric species, for find out whether different systematic groups have characteristic types of niche, and for comparing cumminity structures in the peninsulas of southern Europa.
Acanthodactylus erythrurus, Algyroides marchi, Algyroides moreoticus, Algyroides nigropunctatus, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta graeca, Lacerta horvathi, Lacerta lepida, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta oxycephala, Lacerta mosorensis, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta vivipara, Podarcis bocagei, Podarcis erhardii, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis melisellensis, Podarcis milensis, Podarcis muralis, Podarcis peloponnesiaca, Podarcis sicula, Podarcis taurica, Psammodromus algirus, Psammodromus hispanicus.
Arnold, E.N. (1989) -
Relationships of lacertid lizards were assessed on the basis of 84 primary and 112 binary characters drawn mainly from morphology, including features of the skeleton, external anatomy, various internal soft part systems and two aspects of behaviour. Among features not previously used, or not fully investigated before, are structure of the septomaxilla and nasal passages, arranged of the xiphisternal cartilages, mite pockets, kidney position, ulnar nerve arragement, thoracic fascia, aspects of the hemipenis and its associated muscles, female genitalia and jaw muscles. On the basis of parsimony analysis and compatibilty treatment of this character set, the Lacertidae fall into two main portions: A paraphyletic Palaearctic and Oriental group of primitive forms, from which is derived a holophyletic assemblage of Ethiopian and advanced Saharan and Eurasian taxa.
The former group ist not fully resolvable, but Psammodromus and Gallotia appear to be sister groups and are probably related to Lacerta parva and L. fraasi and then L. brandtii, Podarcis appears to be related successively to L. andreanszkyi, the sister species L. dugesii and L. perspicillata, and perhaps L. danfordi and L. laevis. This assemblage may be related to archaeolacertas and Algyroides. The separation of Lacerta lepida, L. pater and L. princeps from the agilis group, based on chemical evidence, is weakly contradicted by morphology. Takydromus may be most closely related to L. vivipara, and L. jayakari and L. cyanura constitute the most likely sister group of the Ethiopian and advanced Saharo-Eurasian assemblage.
Taxe in the Ethiopian and advanced SaharoEuroasian assemblage form a long essentially pectinate tree with relatively change between the side branches, except for a strong disjunction separating the more primitive from the more advanced taxa. Most of the former fall on two main branches, with ´Lacerta` australis and ´L.` rupicola possibly basal to them. 1. the Equatorial forest group containing Gastropholis, Bedriagaia, ´Lacerta` echinata, Adolfus, ´Lacerta` jacksoni and Holaspis. The first three of these constitute a holophyletic group and the same is probably true of the remainder. 2. Tropidosaura, Poromera and Nucras, the latter being the sister group of the more advanced forms. These include successively the Ethiopian Philochortus, Latastia, Ichnotropis and Heliobolus, Pseuderemias, Meroles and Aporosaura, and Pedioplanis, and then the Saharo-Eurasian Eremias, Acanthodactylus, Mesalina and Ophisops-Cabrita.
It seems probable that the ancestors of modern Lacertidae arose in western Eurasia, where the family is known since the Palaeocene and is still represented there largely by quite primitive forms (89 species and seven nominal genera). The family later invaded Africa, perhaps first in the early or middle Miocene. Relatively primitive lacertids spread widely in largely mesic situations in the Ethiopian region, radiating to some extent (six present genera and 16 species) and producing Nucras and the related series of advaned groups (eight genera and 54 species) whoich show increasing adaptation to xeric environments. These genera tend to have heir most primitive species in the northeast and north of the Ethiopian region. The most advaned gave rise to the Saharo-Eurasian clade, now made up to Eremias, Acanthodactylus, Mesalina and Ophisops-Cabrita. This invaded the arid areas of North Africa and Eurasia, where it is presently represented by 70 species. Many morphological changes in increasingly advanced lacertids may be functionally related to the problems of survival in arid, hot, open environments. Considerable ecological parallelism exists in lacertids, with members of separate stocks occupying similar niches in different geographical areas. Morphological adaptations associated with these niches contribute significantly to the high levels of character homoplasy found in the family. There is also some correlation between the degree of niche differentiation in various groups and the quality of the phylogenies that can be produced from their physical characters. A number of morphological parallels exist between advaned lacertids and New World macroteiids. In the skull at least, advaned lacertids show a complex mixture of paedomorphosis and acceleration.
Nomenclatorial changes are as follows: Cabrita is synonymised with Ophisops, necessitating a new name, Ophisops nictans, for Cabrita jerdonii. Aporosaura is synonymised with Meroles, Platyplacopus with Takydromus, and Bedriagaia with Gastropholis. ´Lacerta` (or Centromastyx) echinata is also transferred to the latter genus and Lacerta jacksoni to Adolfus. ´Lacerta` australis and ´L.` rupicola are put in a new genus, Australolacerta. It is recommended that Lacerta dugesii and L. perspicillata should not be placed in the otherwise very uniform genus Podarcis. Although clearly paraphyletic, Lacerta s. lat. Should be retained at least for the present and, if necessary putative relationships within it indicated by informal groups or subgenera.
Arnold, E.N. (1993) -
Estimates of phylogeny may allow historical events to be reconstructed even without a fossil record. The reliability of such interpretations depends not only on the robustness of the phylogeny but also on its topology. Changes in individual features can be traced and general histories of groups developed and compared with each other. Results are ofter surprising, for Instance the sophisticated tail shedding mechanism of lizards turns out to be a primitive feature that has been lost many times. Similarly, ecological analogues may have developed their common characaters in quite different orders. Phylogenies also provide a way of recognizing constraints and the effects of history on present ecological and behavioural patterns.
When using anatomical characters the quality of the apparent phylogenies produced may be related to ecological history: expansion of a group along an ecological continuum into increasingly demanding niches ina small geographical area tends to produce a robust phylogeny (for instance in Meroles), while this is often not so for widely distributed groups that occupy a more modest range of niches (such as Pedioplanis and Podarcis). Non-morphological data may not show this tendency, but can have their own problems.
Lacertids can be referred to clade with many successive branches in Africa and the Saharo-Eurasian arid zones and a less resolved probably paraphyletic complex of more primitive forms in the Mediterranean and wider Palaearctic areas. The African-Eurasian clade shows a general trend towards ground-dwelling and increasingly arid habitats but is ecologically variied. These animals are important to the study of Mediterranean forms because they provide eco-morphological parallels to them (for instance to Algyroides, Psammodromus and the archaeolacertas) and help form a basis for testing hypotheses about function.
Although it is possible to recognise a number of distinct clades among the Mediterranean and Eurasian forms, relationships within and between these are often much less well substantiated. If results are available in time, current work on mitochondrial DNA sequencing will be discussed.
Arnold, E.N. (2002) -
Differences in surface structure (ober- hautchen) of body scales of lacertid lizards involve cell size, shape and surface profile, presence or absence of fine pitting, form of cell margins, and the occurrence of longitudinal ridges and pustular projections. Phylogenetic information indicates that the primitive pattern involved narrow strap-shaped cells, with low posteriorly overlapping edges and relatively smooth surfaces. Deviations from this condition produce a more sculptured surface and have developed many times, although subsequent overt reversals are uncommon. Like variations in scale shape, different patterns of dorsal body microornamentation appear to confer different and conflicting performance advantages. The primitive pattern may reduce friction during locomotion and also enhances dirt shedding, especially in ground-dwelling forms from moist habitats. However, this smooth microornamentation generates shine that may compromise cryptic coloration, especially when scales are large. Many derived features show correlation with such large scales and appear to suppress shine. They occur most frequently in forms from dry habitats or forms that climb in vegetation away from the ground, situations where dirt adhesion is less of a problem. Microornamentation differences involving other parts of the body and other squamate groups tend to corroborate this functional interpretation. Microornamentation features can develop on lineages in different orders and appear to act additively in reducing shine. In some cases different combinations may be optimal solutions in particular environments, but lineage effects, such as limited reversibility and different developmental proclivities, may also be important in their genesis. The fine pits often found on cell surfaces are unconnected with shine reduction, as they are smaller than the wavelengths of most visible light.
Arnold, E.N. & Arribas, O. & Carranza, S. (2007) -
DNA sequence indicates the Lacertidae contain two subfamilies, Gallotiinae and Lacertinae, the latter comprising two
monophyletic tribes, the Eremiadini of Africa and arid southwest and central Asia, and the Lacertini of Europe, northwest
Africa and southwest and east Asia. Relationships within the 108 species of Lacertini are explored using mtDNA
(291 bp cytochrome b; 329 bp 12S rRNA for 59 nominal species, and reanalysis of the data of Harris et al. 1998, and Fu
2000). The morphology of the tribe is reviewed and 64 of its characters (equivalent to 83 binary ones) also used to assess
relationships. The Lacertini are assigned to 19 monophyletic units of 1 to 27 species, recognised here as the following
genera (contents are indicated in brackets): Algyroides, Anatololacerta gen. nov. (L. danfordi group), Apathya (L. cappadocica
group), Archaeolacerta (L. bedriagae), Dalmatolacerta gen. nov. (L. oxycephala), Darevskia (L. saxicola group),
Dinarolacerta gen. nov. (L. mosorensis), Hellenolacerta gen. nov. (L. graeca), Iberolacerta (L. monticola group), Iranolacerta
gen. nov. (L. brandtii and L. zagrosica), Lacerta s. str. (sand and green lizards, L. agilis group), Parvilacerta gen.
nov. (L. parva and L. fraasii), Phoenicolacerta gen. nov. (L. laevis group), Podarcis (wall lizards), Scelarcis (L. perspicillata),
Takydromus (Asian grass lizards), Teira (L. dugesii), Timon (ocellated lizards, L. lepida group) and Zootoca (L.
vivipara). Both mtDNA and morphology indicate that Lacerta and Timon are sister taxa, and DNA suggests further possible
relationships among genera (Fig. 1, p. 6). Neither DNA nor morphology indicates that the archaeolacertas (sometimes
formalised as Archaeolacerta sens. lat.) form a clade. Instead, they are representatives of an ecomorph associated
with living on rock exposures and using the narrow crevices that these contain.
The Lacertidae probably arose in the European area, with the Gallotiinae later reaching Northwest Africa and the
Canary Islands, and the ancestor of the Eremiadini invading Africa in the mid-Miocene. The Lacertini spread through
much of their present European range and diversified, perhaps largely by repeated vicariance, around 12–16 My ago,
producing the ancestors of the present mainly small-bodied genera, which then underwent often modest speciation. Three
units spread more widely: the Lacerta-Timon clade of large-bodied lizards probably dispersed earliest, followed by Algyroides
and then Podarcis. Overall, European Lacertidae show a pattern of repeated spread, often accompanied by restriction
of previous groups. Expansion of Lacertini may have displaced earlier lacertid lineages from all or much of Europe;
while spread of Podarcis may have restricted many other genera of Lacertini. The earlier expansion of the Lacerta-Timon
clade probably did not have this effect, as difference in adult body size restricted competitive interaction with other
forms. Several invasions of more distant areas also occurred: of East Asia by Takydromus over 10 My ago, and more
recently of northwest Africa by Podarcis, Scelarcis and Timon, and Madeira by Teira.
Relationships within the Eremiadini estimated from both mtDNA, and nDNA differ considerably from those based
on morphology. They indicate relatively mesic forms may have diversified widely across Africa and given rise to at least
three independent invasions of arid habitats. MtDNA also indicates that Lacerta andreanskyi belongs in the Eremiadini
and may occupy a basal position there. It is assigned to a further new genus, Atlantolacerta gen. nov.
Arrayago, M.J. & Bea, A. & Heulin, B. (1996) -
Ausgehend von der Überlegung, dass in der Natur aufgrund geografischer Isolatione keine Hybridisierung zwischen eierlegenden und lebendgebärenden Formen der Waldeidechse Lacerta vivipara stattfinden kann, haben die Autoren im Labor entsprechende Kreuzungsexperimente surchgeführt( F1, F2 und Rückkreuzungen). Ihnen standen dafür Individuen cer viviparen Form aus der Bretagne und der oviparen Form aus dem spanischen Baskenland bzw. den französischen Pyrenäen zur Verfügung. Sowohl bei den reinen Kreuzungen als auch bei Hybridisierungen traten unbefruchtete Eier bzw. abgestorbene Embryonen auf. Die überlebenden Embryonen entwickelten saich jedoch zu F1-Hybriden, die nach Angaben der Autoren alle als fruchtbar gelten. Eine reproduktive Isolation beider Formen lässt sich anhand daher nicht statistisch überzeuegend festmachen. Dies passt gut zu den Ergebnissen genetischer Studien, die ebenfalls auf eine große Nähe beider Formen hindeuten. Obwohl vermutlich richtig, ist dieser Schluss jedoch etwas gewagt. Uneingeschränkte Fertilität sollte einer Linie erst nach mehreren Generationen und Rückkreuzungen zugesprochen werden.
Hybridweibchen der F1-Generation legten jeweils Eier mit nicht vollständig calcifizierter Schale. Die mittlere Schalendicke betrug dabei 21um (zum Vergleich ovipare Form: 40um; vivipare Form: 9um). Das Embryonalstadium, in dem die Eier abgelegt wurden, waren die Stadien 35-36. Dieser Wert liegt zwischewn demjenigen oviparer Weibchen (Stadien 31-34) und dem letzten Embryonalstadium (Stadium 40), bei dem vivipare Weibchen die Eier/Jungtiere absetzen. Entsprechend waren auch die Eizeitigungsdauern bei dem Hybridstamm kürzer als bei der oviparen Form. Der Hybridstamm nimmt damit eine intermediäre Stellung innerhalb des Oviparie-Viviparie-Kontinuums ein und bestätigt eindrucksvoll die Vorhersagen des evolutionären Erklärungsmodells, wonach sich bei Reptilien die Viviparie durch die Reduktion der Dicke der Eischalen und eine längere Verweildauer der Eier im Uterus währne der Embryogenese entwickelt hat..
Die angesprochene, in mehrfacher Beuziehung „mittlere“ Stellung der Hybridtiere deutet darauf hin, dass der Reproduktionsmodus nicht dominant-rezessiv vererbt wird. Allerdings sind – so sehen das die Autoren – noch weitere Untersuchungen und Kreuzungsansätze erforderlich bevor die Mechanismen der Vererbung aufgeklärt sind. Hierzu ist den Autoren die notwendige Geduld und vor allem finanzielle Basis zu wünschen.
Arribas, O.J. (1998) -
Iberolacerta bonnali is endemic from the Central Pyrenees, where inhabits from the Arriel Massif in the west, to the Aigüestortes mountains in the east. His range is characterized by the greater size of the mountain massifs which inhabits, and by to present granitic (igneous) rock substrates. By other side, his localities are also characterized by lesser insolations and sun radiations, as corresponds to the pyrenaean parts with greater atlantic influence. I. aranica is endemic from the Mauberme Massif and its spurs. His area appears characterized by greater snow accumulations both in winter and spring. I. aurelioi is endemic from the Montroig, Pica d`Estats and Coma Pedrosa massifs. His area is characterized by the greater insolations and sun radiations, and by the presence of lesser alpine belt surface and absolute heights of the inhabited massifs. Also, he inhabits only paleozoic rocks (mainly cambroordovician quarzites). In respect to other species present in the alpine belt: Lacerta agilis appears in localities characterized by high insolation and sun radiations in respect to other pyrenaean lizards. Zootoca vivipara do not present specific traits as lives in all the pyrenaean range and frequently sympatrically with all the other species here studied. Podarcis muralis appears in the comparatively more outer parts, with greater insolations, from the Pyrenees.
Arribas, O.J. (1999) -
Archaeolacerta s. l., in the currently utilized sense results to be a polyphyletic taxon, composed of three monophyletic and phylogenetically well differentiated taxa: a)-Archaeolacerta (s. str.) Mertens, 1921, which includes three species: A. bedriagae, A. oxycephala, and A. mosorensis, distributed by the northern part of the Central Mediterranean (Corsica, Sardinia, and west Balcanic Peninsula). His most related genera seem to be Teira (his adelphotaxon in our study), Apathya, and Omanosaura. b)-Iberolacerta gen. nov., with two subgenera: Iberolacerta s. str. and Pyrenesaura subgen. nov. includes six species: I. monticola, I. cyreni, I. bonnali, I. aranica, I. aurelioi, and I. horvathi. They are distributed by the mountains of Western Europe (Iberian Peninsula, Pyrenees, Central and Eastern Alps and the north of the Dinaric Chains). His adelphotaxon are the Caucasian and Near East species of Darevskia gen. nov. c)-The third taxa is Darevskia gen. nov., which includes the species of the `L.` saxicola complex besides `L.` derjugini, `L.` praticola, and `L.` chlorogaster. They are distributed by Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Near East. Other clear relationships among some taxa of the Eurasian Radiation [= `Eurasische linie` from (Mayer and Benyr, 1994)] have been found: Algyroides seems to be the sister group of the species considered of uncertain phylogenetic relationships belonging to the `L.` danfordi-laevis group and of Podarcis. `L.` brandtii seems to be a very primitive species within the Eurasian Radiation. Omanosaura and Apathya appear as sister taxa. `L.` graeca occupies a very basal position in the sister group of Podarcis and relatives (see above). `L.` andreanskyi is the sister species of the Darevskia nov. and Iberolacerta nov. clade. The assimilation of `L.` andreanskyi to Teira is very problematic. Also the `L.` parva group seems to be related to Timon. Some groups of species like `L.` brandtii, `L.` parva-fraasii and `L.` danfordi-laevis probably merit generic rank, but it is necessary a more deep study before to take a decision.
Arribas, O.J. (2000) -
Iberolacerta bonnali (LANTZ, 1927), ein Endemit der axialen Zentralpyrenäen, bewohnt die Gebirgsstöcke Arriel, Balaitous, Vignemale (oder Comachibosa), Panticosa, Monte Perdido, Punta Suelza,Posets, Maladeta, Ballibierna und die Gebirge des Sant Maurici-Aigüestortes Nationalparks (Besiberris, Muntanyó de Llacs, Peguera und Encantats) samt einer kleinen nördlichen Exklave in den Massiven von Neouvielle und Bigorre. Das Artareal umfaßt das Gebiet zwischen den Pässen von Portalé (im Westen) und Bonaigua (im Osten). Die Eidechse lebt in der alpinen Region, gewöhnlich in Höhen oberhalb 2000 m (zwischen 1700 m und 3062 m) und kommt dort in kleinen bis mittelgroßen, gewöhnlich eng begrenzten Populationen auf unterschiedlichem Gestein (Kalk, Schiefer, seltener und weniger dicht auf Gneis und Granit) und häufig in der Nähe von Seen und Bächen vor.
Die Stichproben von Posets und Maladeta erscheinen als morphologisch zentral bzw. intermediär. An sie lassen sich die übrigen Stichproben aus verschiedenen Richtungen anschließen. Unter den gut repräsentierten Stichproben scheinen die von Bigorre und Ballibierna denen von Maladeta, Monte Perdido und Posets am nächsten zu stehen. Unter den weniger gut vertretenen Samples nähern sich die von Neouvielle und Arriel an Bigorre an. Punta Suelza Exemplare sind intermediär und nahezu nicht von M. Perdido und Posets Tieren unterscheidbar. Die Stichproben Maladeta, Besibierri, Aigüestortes and Ballibierna sind alle gleichermaßen gegenüber den intermediären Populationen differenziert. Insgesamt entsteht der Eindruck, daß die U-förmige Gebirgsformation von Posets, Maladeta und Ballibierna von einer Gruppe „zentraler Populationen“ bewohnt ist, von denen sich drei Stichproben morphologisch am stärksten abheben: Bigorre im Norden, M. Perdido westlich und Aigüestortes im Osten. Dieses Modell positioniert einen möglichen Refugialstandort der Art im Würm auf die Südhänge jenes U-förmigen Gebirgskomplexes, doch bleibt die Möglichkeit anderer kleiner Refugialräume, etwas im Gebiet von Aigüestortes. Das Szenario der Ausbreitung aus diesen Refugialräumen am Ende der letzten Vereisung wird dargestellt, eine das Gesamtmaterial einbeziehende vollständige Diagnose von I. bonnali wird gegeben.
Arribas, O.J. (2001) -
Iberoalacerta aranica (ARRIBAS, 1993) ist ein Endemit der Zentral-Pyrenäen, der ausschließlich das Maubèrme Massiv und dessen Ausläufer zwischen Val d´Aràn (Spanien) und der Ariège (Frankreich) bewohnt. Vorkommen der Art sind in fünfundzwanzig 1 km x 1 km U.T.M. Rasterfeldern nachgewiesen; das mögliche Verbreitungsgebiet bedeckt maximal 36 derartige Rasterfelder. Die Eidechse bewohnt Schutthalden, Geröllfelder und steiniges Grasland (meist auf paläozoischen Schiefern und Kalken) im alpinen Vegetationsgürtel zwischen 1940 m (1900 m) und 2668 m Seehöhe.
Alle untersuchten Populationen mit Ausnahme deren von Orlá scheinen untereinander mehr oder weniger in Kontakt zu stehen. In Abhängigkeit vom bewohnten Gesteinsuntergrund bestehen populationstypische Unterschiede in der Rückengrundfarbe. Tiere von Maubèrme ähneln jenen von Liat sehr; beide stehen den Serra d´Armeros Populationen (Barrados und Pica Palomera) nahe. Im allgemeinen dominieren in letzteren Populationen dunkle Farbtöne, während bei Exemplaren von Maubèrme und Liuat intermediäre oder hellere Grundfarben vorherrschen. Estany de Güerri ist ein Vorkommen am äußersten Ende der Serra d´Armeros, und das einzige von dort untersuchte Exemplar scheint morphologisch den Tieren von Armenos nahezustehen.
Nur die Exemplare von Orlà unterscheiden sich deutlich von allen übrigen. Sie besitzen eine hellere Rückengrundfarbe mit deutlicher dunkler Färbung. Pholidotisch unterscheiden sie sich von den übrigen Populationen an der Körperunterseite (vor allem ihre größeren Gularia und Ventralia) sowie durch kleinere Masseterica und Analia; auch haben sie relativ längere Hinterbeine. Die Unterschiede in den Extremitätenproportionen könnten im Zusammenhang mit der gut ausgebildeten Kletterfähigkeit und dem bewohnten Gesteinstyp gesehen werden. Die Populationen von Orlà sind entweder tatsächlich isoliert oder sie stehen mit Maubèrme Tieren über einen sehr schmalen Korridor in Verbindung.
Arribas, O.J. (2006) -
Arribas, O.J. (2009) -
Die geographische Variabilität Ibero-Pyrenäischer Zootoca vivipara (JACQUIN, 1787) wird untersucht. Multivariate Analysen weisen auf eine Differenzierung zentral- und west-kantabrischer Stichproben, hauptsächlich aufgrund der besonderen Pileuskonfiguration, besonders der Männchen, währen die Weibchen beträchtliche morphologische Überschneidungen mit Weibchen anderer Gebiete zeigen. Univariate Statistiken gruppieren Exemplare aus Kantabrien und dem Baskenland (s. lat.) näher beieinander, während die der Pyrenäen sich von diesen etwas abheben, ein Muster, das recht gut mit den Ergebnissen genetischer Studien übereinstimmt.
Die oviparen kantabro-pyrenäischen Populationen werden als neue Unterart beschrieben. Zootoca vivipara louislantzi ssp. nov..Sie unterscheiden sich von anderen Unterarten in mehrerer Hinsicht und sind durch folgende Merkmalskombination gekennzeichnet: morphologisch (verminderte Anzahl von Collaria und Supralabialia, vermehrte Zahl von Subdigitallamellen der 4. Zehe, Fehlen eines diskontinuierlichen breiten, weiß gerandeten Rückenstreifens und bei Weibchen jeglicher gelber Pigmentierung auf der Bauchseite), osteologisch (Tendenz zur Reduktion der Präsakralwirbel), karyologisch (W-sex Chromosom einarmig) und genetisch (Nei’s genetische Distanz von 0.102 und die diagnostischen Allele ATA-150 und ATA-200 sowie 1,3(±0,5 Standardabweichung) % Sequenzdifferenz on der 16S rRNA und 1.9 % Spannweite: 1-2.6 %) im Cytochrom b). Die biometrischen und meristischen Merkmale werden für die neue Unterart insgesamt und getrennt nach den Hauptverbreitungsgebieten angegeben.
Arribas, O.J. (2011) -
Arribas, O.J. (2012) -
In this paper we deal on the ultraviolet color (invisible to us): where we can find it, the capability of animals to see it and the advantages that this color perception offers to them. As the simplest way to detect it is the photography, we describe and review how to photograph the UV, as a result of 15 years of amateur experience, searching
and testing nearly in complete blindness due to the lack of practical information about “how to do it”. We describe the different kinds of photography (chemical and digital); the cameras and objectives suitable (both astronomically expensive ones and cheap options); what are the best characteristics that the objectives should have for this purpose; the films suitable for their use in chemical photography; the different filters (current or discontinued) manufactured along the years; and the subtle combinations among the different materials to obtain pure UV photographs. This
kind of scientific photography is mainly used in forensics, forgery detection, art dermatology and less in Natural History, despite the fact that a great part of animals see this color and use it in important questions of their biology as the social behavior, mate choice or the food search.
Arribas, O.J. (2019) -
The name “lacerta Schreibersiana var B Lutea Gachet, 1832” forgotten during near two centuries, could endanger the name of Zootoca vivipara louislantzi Arribas, 2009, described 10 years ago. In the present article, we argue that there are several reasons to rule out “lutea” as a valid name. On the one hand, there is a remarkable contradiction that could make one doubt about the species concerned (the tricuspid teeth, never are present in Z. vivipara). Even if being Z. vivipara, there is an uncertainty also regarding the subspecies concerned (the Garona river is the theoretical limit that separates both oviparous and viviparous forms, and although oviparous is closer, none lives today in the vicinity of Bordeaux). That`s why “Lutea”should be a nomen dubium. In addition, and in words of its own author, it was erected as a variety of color in some individuals, so it is an infrasubspecific name. For all these reasons, and in case any of these aspects could still be further discussed, we propose here the reversal of precedence, since the name `Lutea` has never been used as valid in the last 187 years, and the name louislantzi has more than 10 years and has been used as valid in at least 37 works and by 70 different authors (see Appendix 1; the minimum required by the ICZN is 10 years, 25 works and 10 authors). For this reason it is declared louislantzi as nomen protectum and “Lutea” nomen oblitum.
Artacho, P. & Jouanneau, I. & Galliard, J.F. le (2013) -
Studies of the relationship of performance and behavioral traits with environmental factors have tended to neglect interindividual variation even though quantification of this variation is fundamental to understanding how phenotypic traits can evolve. In ectotherms, functional integration of locomotor performance, thermal behavior, and energy metabolism is of special interest because of the potential for coadaptation among these traits. For this reason, we analyzed interindividual variation, covariation, and repeatability of the thermal sensitivity of maximal sprint speed, preferred body temperature, thermal precision, and resting metabolic rate measured in ca. 200 common lizards (Zootoca vivipara) that varied by sex, age, and body size. We found significant interindividual variation in selected body temperatures and in the thermal performance curve of maximal sprint speed for both the intercept (expected trait value at the average temperature) and the slope (measure of thermal sensitivity). Interindividual differences in maximal sprint speed across temperatures, preferred body temperature, and thermal precision were significantly repeatable. A positive relationship existed between preferred body temperature and thermal precision, implying that individuals selecting higher temperatures were more precise. The resting metabolic rate was highly variable but was not related to thermal sensitivity of maximal sprint speed or thermal behavior. Thus, locomotor performance, thermal behavior, and energy metabolism were not directly functionally linked in the common lizard.
Artacho, P. & Saravia, J. & Ferrandière, B.D. & Perret, S. & Le Galliard, J.F. (2015) -
Phenotypic selection is widely accepted as the primary cause of adaptive evolution in natural populations, but selection on complex functional properties linking physiology, behavior, and morphology has been rarely quantified. In ectotherms, correlational selection on thermal physiology, thermoregulatory behavior, and energy metabolism is of special interest because of their potential coadaptation. We quantified phenotypic selection on thermal sensitivity of locomotor performance (sprint speed), thermal preferences, and resting metabolic rate in captive populations of an ectothermic vertebrate, the common lizard, Zootoca vivipara. No correlational selection between thermal sensitivity of performance, thermoregulatory behavior, and energy metabolism was found. A combination of high body mass and resting metabolic rate was positively correlated with survival and negatively correlated with fecundity. Thus, different mechanisms underlie selection on metabolism in lizards with small body mass than in lizards with high body mass. In addition, lizards that selected the near average preferred body temperature grew faster that their congeners. This is one of the few studies that quantifies significant correlational selection on a proxy of energy expenditure and stabilizing selection on thermoregulatory behavior.
Aschauer, M. & Grabher, M. & Huber, D. & Loacker, I. & Tschisner, C. & Amann, G. (2008) -
Ash, C. (2017) -
Mass extinction may be reaching parts that we do not normally consider. Like most living organisms, lizards are dependent on a variety of cohabiting microorganisms for optimum health. Bestion et al. looked at the cloacal microbiota of Zootoca vivipara lizards living in semi-natural enclosures under various temperature regimes. Life at warmer temperatures affected the lizards` most diverse gut bacterial phyla, which declined by over 30%. In particular, the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes dropped, and those of Proteobacteria increased, at 3°C above present conditions. Species richness positively correlated with lizard survival the following year. What mediates the changes in bacterial diversity is not understood, but climate may be acting via food supplies, host behavior, or body condition. The data also revealed gender differences in functional features of the resulting microbiota.
Ashley-Best, H. (1965) -
Atkins, J.D. & Franz-Odendaal, T.A. (2016) -
The sclerotic ring consists of several bones that form in the sclera of many reptiles. This element has not been well studied in squamates, a diverse order of reptiles with a rich fossil record but debated phylogeny. Squamates inhabit many environments, display a range of behaviours, and have evolved several different body plans. Most importantly, many species have secondarily lost their sclerotic rings. This research investigates the presence of sclerotic rings in squamates and traces the lineage of these bones across evolutionary time. We compiled a database on the presence/absence of the sclerotic ring in extinct and extant squamates and investigated the evolutionary history of the sclerotic ring and how its presence/absence and morphology is correlated with environment and behaviour within this clade. Of the 400 extant species examined (59 families, 214 genera), 69% have a sclerotic ring. Those species that do not are within Serpentes, Amphisbaenia, and Dibamidae. We find that three independent losses of the sclerotic ring in squamates are supported when considering both evolutionary and developmental evidence. We also show that squamate species that lack, or have a reduced, sclerotic ring, are fossorial and headfirst burrowers. Our dataset is the largest squamate dataset with measurements of sclerotic rings, and supports previous findings that size of the ring is related to both environment occupied and behaviour. Specifically, scotopic species tend to have both larger inner and outer sclerotic ring apertures, resulting in a narrower ring of bone than those found in photopic species. Non-fossorial species also have a larger sclerotic ring than fossorial species. This research expands our knowledge of these fascinating bones; with further phylogenetic analyses scleral ossicles could become an extremely useful character trait for inferring the behaviour of fossil squamates.
Ausanneau, M. & Baudouin, A. de & Fossé, C. & Gagnier, S. & Lelièvre, H. & Lise, H. & Lolive, N. & Oleszczynski, S. & Veron, F. (2018) -
Ausanneau, M. & Baudouin, A. de & Fossé, C. & Gagnier, S. & Lelièvre, H. & Lisse, H. & Lolive, N. & Oleszczynski, S. & Veron, F. (2018) -
Avery, R.A. (1962) -
Avery, R.A. (1966) -
Avery, R.A. (1970) -
1. Lipids in the abdominal fat bodies and the tail of Lacerta vivipara caught in August and September accounted for one third of the dry body weight. 2. When the lizards emerged from hibernation in March and April, lipids accounted for only one sixth of the dry body weight. Half of the loss was from the tail.
Avery, R.A. (1971) -
(1) Common lizards maintain a body temperature of 30.2+-2.5 degrees C during the daytime whilst the sun is shining. When they are not able to maintain this temperature, they retreat underground and do not feed; under these conditions, the body temperature falls to that of the surrounding air. (2) Feeding behaviour depends on the amount of sunshine. During 1969 there were 132 days when lizards fed regularly (`sunny` days), 42 when they fed sporadically (`changeable` days) and 191 when they did not feed. (3) Food consumption was estimated by four methods, and these are compared. The simplest method involved collection of faeces from wild-caught animals, and gave values for food consumption of F = 21.8W0.74 on `sunny` days and F = 12.4W0.70 on `changeable` days where F = food consumption in mg dry weight g live weight-1 day-1 and W = live weight in grams. (4) Ad libitum consumption of mealworms by lizards in the laboratory was given by F = 22.0W0.79. (5) With one exception, estimates of food consumption by other methods did not diverge from those given above by more than +- 20%.
Avery, R.A. (1973) -
Stomach volumes of the lizard Lacerta vivipara were determined by injection with water to a pressure of 40 mm mercury. The relation between stomach volume and body weight is isometric. Food consumption per unit of body weight, however, decreases with increasing size. It is concluded that stomach volume is not the main factor which determines food consumption.
Food is lost from the stomach at an exponential rate. At normal temperatures, the stomach is nearly empty at the beginning of the morning activity period.
Avery, R.A. (1974) -
Lipids in various tissues of Lacerta vivipara were measured at three times of the year: immediately after hibernation, mid-season, and immediately prior to hibernation. Lipid deposits in the abdominal fat bodies and the caudal fat bands fluctuated seasonally, but at any time showed a marked positive allometry with body length and weight; the functional significance of this relationship is not known. Carcass lipid and liver weight were isometric with body length and weight.
Avery, R.A. (1975) -
Survivorship of L. vivipara in the field was estimated from visual census of the age-composition of two populations. There was approximately 90% mortality in the first year of life; but the mean expectation of life of an individual which survived to its first birthday was then between four and five years.
The ratio clutch weight: body weight in Lacerta vivipara is 0.4; larger lizards produce more eggs, and total clutch weight is isometric with body weight. The clutch represents between 7% and 9% of the estimated annual assimilation of a female lizard, and 23–24% of the assimilation during the period between emergence from hibernation and the establishment of the eggs in the oviducts.
Avery, R.A. (1993) -
Slightly disturbing captive common lizards, Lacerta vivipara, by movement and noise while they are basking in laboratory arenas resulted in an increase in respiration frequency (Rf) and a decrease in the probability that a lizard would respond to the introduction of a potential prey item. Two categories of pre(crickets and mealworms) were presented at three locations defined in relation to the snout of a lizard; there were clear negative correlations between Rf and probability of feeding in all cases. Respiration frequency can thus be used as a means for determining whether a lizard in a feeding trial has been diverted by extraneous stimuli. This is important in investigations of foraging efficiency in relation to perceptual fields and movement patterns, in which it is necessary to know that experimental animals have not been diverted in this way.
Avery, R.A. & Bedford, J.D. & Newcombe, C.P. (1982) -
Decreasing levels of simulated solar radiation have the following effects in the diurnal basking lizard Lacerta vivipara: (i) increase in time spent basking with a consequent decrease in time available for foraging (ii) decrease in speed of movement whilst foraging (iii) decrease in total foraging distance, and hence contact with potential prey (iv) decrease in searching efficiency in an experimental arena. Complete absence of simulated solar radiation accentuates these effects, and reduces the proportion of faster-moving prey in the diet. Time taken to swallow prey (handling time) increases exponentially with decreasing body temperature. It is concluded from these results that maintaining relatively high activity temperatures (30–36°C) is adaptive for the species because the loss of potential foraging time caused by lengthy periods of basking is offset by the following advantages: increased contact with and capture of prey, increased efficiency of prey handling, and availability of a wider range of prey types.
Avery, R.A. & Bond, D.J. (1989) -
Lacerta vivipara emerging from their overnight retreat before they had the opportunity to thermoregulate moved with an alternation of locomotor bursts and pauses. Mean speed during bursts of locomotion fell with decreasing temperature from 3.21 snout-vent lengths (SVL) s-1 at the activity temperature (Tact ~ 33°C) to 0.15 SVL s-1 at 5°C. Between Tact and 19°C the reduction was small (Q10 = 1.12) and statistically not significant; between 19°C and 5°C the change was very much greater (Q10 = 7.7). The pauses between locomotor bursts increased progressively in duration over the whole range of decreasing temperatures from Tact to 5°C, although then change from Tact to 23°C was not significant.
Gait changed progressively from almost simulaneous movement of contralateral diagonal limbs at Tact to independent movement of limbs in the sequence LF, RH, RF, LH at 7°C, with increases in the mean duty factor of individual feet from 0.50 to 0.76 and in the proportion of time for which 3 or 4 feet were in simultaneous contact with the ground from 0 to 0.92.
Avery, R.A. & McArdle, B.H. (1973) -
Avery, R.A. & Mueller, C.F. & Jones, S.M. & Smith, J.A. & Bond, D.J. (1987) -
Four species of lacertid lizards (Podarcis muralis, Podarcis pityusensis, Lacerta viridis, and Lacerta trilineata) moving in laboratory arenas alternated bursts of locomotion with short (<1 s) pauses. Variables relating to this movement are compared under two conditions, defined as `standard` and `fleeing,` with values previously recorded for Lacerta vivipara. Mean speeds of the five species (U, in cm s-1) increased with increasing body mass (M, in g) as U = 15.1 M 0.17. When expressed in body lengths per second, however, mean speeds decreased with increasing body mass. The ratio of `fleeing` to `standard` speed was lower in adult L. vivipara than in adults of P. muralis, P. pityusensis, and L. trilineata and was lower in juvenile L. vivipara than in juvenile L. viridis; possible reasons for these differences are discussed. The incidence and duration of pauses in the five species decreased with increasing body mass.
Avery, R.A. & Mueller, C.F. & Smith, J.A. & Bond, D.J. (1987) -
Lacerta vivipara moving across an open space at their normal activity temperature alternate bursts of locomotion with short pauses which tend to occur at the extremes of the limb cycle, i.e. when individual limbs are maximally adducted or retracted and the spinal cord is maximally flexed in the lateral plane. The movement bursts and pauses in adult lizards have mean durations of 0–30 and 012 s, respectively, and within bursts the lizards move at a mean speed of 14–6 cm s-1. Movement in juvenile lizards is 2–5 times faster (relative to body length) and the pauses are of longer duration (mean = 019 s), giving the locomotion of juveniles a more jerky appearance. Lizards which are chasing crickets increase the speed and the duration of locomo-tory bursts, although the pauses persist. Lizards which are searching for a previously perceived cricket increase pause duration (mean = 0–40 s). Lizards which are fleeing from a sudden disturbance move at almost twice (juveniles) or 3–7 times (adults) the speed of foraging animals: the pauses persist, although at much reduced frequency. Increases in speed result from increases in both stride length (Λ) and stride frequency (n); the ratio Λ/n appears to remain constant at 006. The significance of these observations is discussed, although the functions of the pauses cannot yet be explained.
Avery, R.A. & Mynott, A. (1990) -
The time taken by adolt Lacerta vivipara to manipulate and swallow living crickets or mealworms (handling time, H) is determined by body temperature and by the size of the prey. H increases exponentially with decreasing body temperature. It increases with prey site at any temperature in proportion to (prey mass). H. did not change when a lizard fed sequentially on a number of smaller invertebrates, except that the duration for the first item was usually greater than the mean for the remainder. Feeding resulted in an increase in respiration frequency which was proportionately greater at lower temperature. Feeding was often interspersed with pauses which increased in duration with decreasing body temperature and increasing prey size.
Avery, R.A. & Shewry, D.R. & Stobart, A.K. (1974) -
Avery, R.A. & Tosini, G. (1995) -
The propability that lizards would capture crickets declined with distance from the snout, at rates which were significantly more rapid in all directions in Lacerta vivipara than in Podarcis muralis or L. viridis, i.e. the former species responded to potential prey over a smaller area. Capture probabilities at any distance in front of or behind the snout were lower in P. muralis or L. viridis which were pausing during locomotion than in basking lizards, confirming previous results with L. vivipara. Using capture probabilities for pausing lizards to calculate the average time it would take to find a single item of prey (tf) in relation to the mean length of locomotor bursts, on the assumption that prey could only be detected while a lizard was pausing, showed that actual mean burst distance corresponded exactly with the burst distance which gave rise to minimum tf in L. vivipara. Mean locomotor burst distances in P. muralis and L. viridis were lower than the distances which gave minimum tf values. It is suggested that, in these species, the mean burst length has evolved as a compromise between minimising tf and avoiding the high overall energy expenditures which would result from long burst lengths.
Avery, R.A. & White, A.S. & Martin, M.H. & Hopkin, S.P. (1983) -
Specimens of the common lizard Lacerta vivipara were captured from beside a busy road, a little used country road, and the spoil heaps of a disused lead mine. Concentrations of lead, zinc and copper in lizards from beside the busy road were no higher than in those from the little used road, although levels in soils, vegetations and some invertebrates were greater. Levels of lead were higher, however, in lizards from the site contaminated by mining. Concentrations of metals in lizards from all three sites were lower than those in soils and most invertebrates, demonstrating that L. vivipara do not accumulate heave metals to an extent that their position ín the food chain might suggest.
Badiane, A. & Martin, M. & Meylan, S. & Richard, M. & Cencière Ferrandière, B. & Galliard, J.-F. le (2020) -
Pre-copulatory female mate choice based on male ultraviolet (UV) coloration has been demonstrated in several vertebrate species; however, post-copulatory mechanisms have been largely overlooked. Here, we investigated female mate preference based on male UV coloration in the common lizard Zootoca vivipara, in which males display conspicuous UV coloration on their throat. During two successive years, we staged sequential mating trials between females and four different males with UV-reduced or control belly and throat coloration. We recorded pre-copulatory female behaviour, copulation behaviour and assigned paternity to all offspring. Females were more aggressive towards UV-reduced males and, during the second year, UV-reduced males had a lower probability of siring at least one egg (fertilization success) during the last mating trials. However, in the second year, copulation was shorter with control males. Altogether, our results suggest that females exert subtle pre-copulatory mate preference based on male UV ornaments and, conditional on the study year and female mating history, some degree of post-copulatory preference for UV-control males leading to differential male fertilization success. This study suggests that UV-based female mate choice may be more widespread than previously thought in vertebrates, and emphasizes the importance of using a study design well adapted to the species reproductive behaviour.
Baeckens, S. & Edwards, S. & Huyghe, K. & Van Damme, R. (2015) -
Animals communicate via a variety of sensory channels and signals. Studies on acoustic and visual communication systems suggest that differences in the physical environment contribute to the variety of signalling behaviour, with species investing in those signals that are transmitted best under the local conditions. Whether or not environmental tuning also occurs in chemical communication systems has received much less attention. In the present study, we examined the effect of several aspects of the physical environment on the chemical communication system of lacertid lizards (family Lacertidae). The numbers of femoral pores are used as a proxy reflecting how much a particular species invests in and relies upon chemical signalling. Femoral pores are specialized epidermal structures that function as a secretion channel for the waxy substance produced by glands. In some lacertid species, the secretion carries infochemicals that play an important role in social communication. The number of femoral pores varies considerably among species. We have compiled data on femoral pore numbers for 162 species and tested for the effects of climate and substrate use. After correcting for body size and taking the phylogenetic relationships among the species into account, we found no effect of climate conditions or latitude on species pore numbers. Substrate use did affect pore numbers: shrub-climbing species tended to have fewer femoral pores than species inhabiting other substrates.
Baeckmann, J. (1900) -
Bakiev, A.G. & Gorelov, R.A. & Klenina, A.A. (2020) -
Nine reptile species inhabited on the five sites in the Orenburgsky State Nature Reserve, these are Emys orbicularis, Eremias arguta, Lacerta agilis, Zootoca vivipara, Natrix natrix, N. tessellata, Coronella austriaca, Elaphe dione, and Vipera renardi. Lacerta agilis is the only abundant species. Over the last 20-25 years, the abundance of at least three species (Emys orbicularis, Zootoca vivipara, Natrix natrix) has decreased in some clusters of the reserve.
Bakker, A. (1988) -
During two days in June 1986 in Polleur (Belgian Ardennes), the following species were observed: Salamandra salamandra terrestris, Triturus alpestris, T. cristatus, T. helveticus, T. vulgaris, Bufo bufo, Rana temporaria, Anguis fragilis and Lacerta vivipara.
Bakó, B. & Korsós, Z. (1999) -
Distribution of 16 amphibian and 15 reptile species of Hungary was mapped in the 10x10 km U.T.M. system, based on data from the literature, museum collections, and our own field surveys. By this method, 36.6 % of the country was covered. A new, nature conservation orientated, ranking system was invented to evaluate the „herpetological value” of a given region, using the distribution maps of the different species. For this purpose, herptile species were grouped in four (amphibians) and five (reptiles) categories of relative abundance, calculated by dividing their number of occurrences by the number of the total observed 10x10 km for the herpetofauna (385 from Hungary`s total 1052). Weighting the different categories (common, abundant, moderately abundant, rare, and very rare), the nominal (theoretical) maximum nature conservation values of 46, 111, and 157 points were resulted for a single U.T.M. square (for amphibians, reptiles, and the total herpetofauna, respectively). Applying this evaluation method to the seven major geographical regions of Hungary, the conservation values did not show correlation to the degree of research in these regions. With regard to the amphibians, three regions have reached the maximum conservation value: the Alpine foothills of westernmost Hungary, the Transdanubian Hills, and the Northeastern Hills. In contrast to this, no region have reached the maximum value with regards to its reptile fauna: the closest is the Great Plain with 95 points (85.5 %). It is also this region which is the most valuable, regarding the total herpetofauna, its research level, however being only 30 %. The qualifying method described here for nature conservation evaluation is useful especially for areas which are already well explored (with high research level). The application can be extended to other (vertebrate and invertebrate) taxa, and the value received for the evaluated region may provide useful indication to the practical nature conservation as well.
Az irodalmi, a közgyőjteményi, valamint terepi megfigyelési adataink alapján elkészí- tettük a magyarországi kétéltő- és hüllıfajok U.T.M. - rendszerő faunatérképeit. Ezek alapján egy új természetvédelmi szempontú értékelési eljárást alkalmaztunk, mely segítségével az ott elıforduló fajok alapján egy régió „herpetológiai természetvédelmi értékét” lehet meghatározni. Ehhez az egyes fajok országos elıfordulási gyakoriságát, a megfigyelési U.T.M. - négyzethez viszonyított relatív gya- korisági kategóriákba osztottuk. A kétéltőeknél négy, a hüllıknél öt gyakorisági osztály felállításával, majd azokhoz súlyfaktorok hozzárendelésével kiszámoltuk egyetlen U.T.M. - négyzet maximális – elméleti – természetvédelmi pontértékét. Magyarország nagytájainak ezzel az eljárással kapott természetvédelmi pontértékei azt mutatták, hogy a kutatottság nincs arányban a területeknek a her- petofaunán alapuló természetvédelmi értékével. A kétéltőfauna alapján három nagy tájegységünk is eléri a maximális természetvédelmi pontértéket (46 pont). A hüllıfauna esetében viszont egyik nagytájunk sem éri el a maximumot (111 pont), legjobban a dunai Alföld közelíti meg 95 ponttal. A teljes herpetofaunára vonatkozó összesített természetvédelmi pontértékek alapján a legértékesebb táj- egységünk a dunai Alföld, amelynek kutatottsága azonban alig 30 %-os. Az alkalmazott természet- védelmi szempontú területminısítı módszer elsısorban jól kutatott területek értékelésére alkalmas. Több taxonra való kiterjesztésével, és együttes értékelésével a gyakorlati természetvédelem számára is felhasználható információt adhat az adott terület faunájáról.
Balletto, E- (2005) -
Bank, J., Kruyntjens, B. & P. Paulissen (1982) -
The authors give a description of the herpetofauna of some area´s in Yougoslavia they visited in june 1979. Some attention is given to the habitat of several species. The differences between certain island and mainland populations of some Lacerta- and Podarcis-species are discussed to some extend.
Bannikov, A.G. (2018) -
Bannikov, A.G. & Darevsky, I.S. & Ishchenko, V.G. & Rustamov, A.K. & Szczerbak, N.N. (1977) -
Банников А.Г. & Даревский И.С. & Ищенко, В.Г. & Рустамов, А.К. & Щербак, Н.Н. (1977) -
Barahona, F. & Barbadillo, L. (1997) -
We carried out a morphometric study of the skull throughout postnatal ontogeny in 14 species of Iberian lacertid lizards belonging to the genera Acanthodactylus, Algyroides, Psammodromus, Podarcis, Zootoca, Timon and Lacerta s. latu with the aim of elaborating a key of identification for the studies species. A total of sixty one characters showing interspecific variation are identified. The characters are defined in articulated and disarticulated skulls.
Barahona, F. & Barbadillo, L. J. (1998) -
Intra- und interspecific variation are analysed fpr the post-natal skull of the lacertid lizards Gallotia galloti, Actnhodactylus erythrurus, Algyroides marchi, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta vivipara, Podarcis bocagei, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis muralis, Psammodromus algirus and Psammodromus hispanicus. Individual variations identified include: the prsence/absence, number and morphology of some structures, mainly in the lacrimal, sclerotic ossicles and macilla; the number and location of foramina and the degree of ossification of some processes in chondrocranial bones. No differences bones. No differences have been found between the sexes with respect to presence and morphology of the bones but some species show sexual dimorphism in the size and robustness of the head and this may be reflected in the individual. The most substantial variations seen are ontogenetic: the appearances of new traits; development of articulations; differences between species in the timing of the stages of development of a given structure; changes in the relative position of some cranial elements; and the degree of calcification or ossification of processes. A total of 63 characters showing interspecific variations are identified. Some have not previously been described while others used in previous studies are redefined here on the basis of new morphological information obtained.
Baratelli, D. & Ghielmi, S. (1994) -
Barbadillo, L.J. & Barahona, F. (1994) -
Barbadillo, L.J. & Bauwens, D. (1997) -
Males of many lizard species have longer tails than similarly-sized females. We hypothesized that this dimorphism is induced by a longer non-autotomous tail part in males, which is associated with the presence of the copulatory organs at the tail base, and presumably reduces the males` ability to escape predation by tail shedding. A compensatory mechanism would be an increase of total tail length in males, to achieve equal lengths of the autotomous tail part in both sexes. A critical prediction of this `morphological constraint` hypothesis is that the extent of dimorphism in total tail length increases with the magnitude of sexual differences in length of the non-autotomous tail base. We tested this prediction through a comparative study in a small clade of lacertid lizards. Within each of nine species, sexual differences in length of the non-autotomous tail base and in total tail length do not change with body size. All species, except one, exhibit a clear male-biased dimorphism in length of the non-breakable tail base. In all species studied, males have longer tails than females. We used the method of phylogenetically independent contrasts to explore the interspecific relation between dimorphism in length of the tail base and sexual differences in total tail length. Contrary to our prediction, we found no evidence for a positive correlation between the extent of dimorphism in both traits. Thus, constraints imposed by the male copulatory organs on tail autotomy do not seem to be a significant factor in the evolution of dimorphism in tail length in this clade of lacertid lizards.
Barbadillo, L.J. & Bauwens, D. & Barahona, F. & Sanchez-Heraiz, M.J. (1995) -
We hypothesized that the presence of the forked hemipenes, and associated musculature, at the base of the tail in male lizards should constrain the capacity to autotomize the tail. Thus, this hypothesis predicts that the non-autotomous base of the tail should be longer in male than in female lizards. We tested this hypothesis in four species oflacertid lizards. Males have on average one to two non-autotomous vertebrae more than females, and the sexual difference in length of the non-autotomous tail base remains constant over the entire body size range. In addition, the first functional autotomy plane in males is usually located on, or is distal to, the vertebrae from which two hemipenial muscles take origin. These observations support the view that functional demands of the male intromittent organs impose constraints on the abilities of tail autotomy. In a natural population of Lacerta vivipara, the proportion of tail breaks that occurred at very short distances from the base was highest in females, indicating that the small sexual difference in length of the non-autotomous tail part is of functional significance. Total length of the tail was largest in males. This can be interpreted as a compensation for the decline in autotomy capacities at the tail base, such that the length of the autotomous part remains similar in both sexes.
Barbadillo, L.J. & Lacomba, J.I. & Pérez-Mellado, V. & Sancho, V. & López-Jurado, L.F. (1999) -
Barbier, H. (1905) -
Barceló y Combis, F. (1876) -
Barisic, F. & Bogdanovic, T. (2011) -
Research of fauna and biology of particular species of reptiles in the area of Nature park Papuk were done in the period from February 2009 to September 2009, in 15 locations. The transect method was used in data gathering on reptiles. The sampled units were measured for length or photographed, and during sampling the environmental parametres were measured. The collected data were entered in the database and with the help of GIS technology distribution maps of particular species on the examined area were made. The species Natrix natrix and Lacerta viridis had the largest quantitative structure. The eudominant species were established to be Natrix natrix, Lacerta viridis, Natrix tessellata and Lacerta vivipara, while the recent species are Vipera berus and Ablepharus kitaibelii. The numerousness of species in the researched area as well as their distribution are the result of various conditions in microhabitats, where species find the optimal conditions for survival. Furthermore, seasonal and daily dynamics were analysed. Daily activities, of species and of individuals, show a decrease of value from morning to afternoon, and as far as seasonal dynamics is concerned, the most intensive period of appearance of reptile is in the period from July to September.
Barrioz, M. (2014) -
Barrioz, M. & Voeltzel, V. (2012) -
Barthe, L. (Coord.) (2014) -
Bartheau, F. & Dusoulier, F. & Gouret, L. & Grosselet, O. (1999) -
Bartheau, F. & Dusoulier, F. & Gouret, L. & Grosselet, O. (2001) -
Bas-López, S. (1980) -
Bas-López, S. (1984) -
In this work the actual state of knowledge on biogeography of amphibians and reptiles from Galicia is exposed in a synthetical way based upon distributional data gathered during the last 10 years.
The geographic distribution of species and communities on latitudinal and altitudinal gradients indicates that climate and biotope are more important factors than latitude or altitude over sea.
The presence of relict populations of eurosibirian taxa and the geographic distribution of endemism poit to the importance of climatic alterations during the Quaternary Age (Glaciarism). Thus, the eurosibirian taxa were driven towards Galicia following both the Cornice and the Cantabrian Chain as a mountains, giving rise to sub-especiation or speciation in allopatry of some endemisms.
As the present data are poor we must consider our conclusions as a first hypothesis.
Basarukin, A.M. (1983) -
Baskiera, S. (2013) -
Viviparous lizard, Zootoca vivipara Lichtenstein 1823 is wide-distributed reptile but data on it’s distribution in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is scanty. It is the only lacertid lizard with two modes of reproduction, oviparous and ovoviviparous. Two geographically distinct populations were studied. One from Vlašić (BIH; Zootoca vivipara vivipara Von Jacquin, 1787 subspecies) and other from Spačva (CRO; considered to be Zootoca vivipara pannonica Lac & Kluch, 1968). Gravid females were collected from sampling sites, to establish their reproductive mode. They were put into terraria until juveniles hatched. Data on female body mass change (before and after oviposition and parturition respectively), size and mass of both eggs and hatchlings were taken. Population from Vlašić was ovoviviparous while population from Spačva was oviparous. This research also proved heavier and bigger females to have larger clutch size and hatchlings with larger SVL size and bigger mass. Results obtained from t-test showed that that oviparous females have larger clutch size and hatchlings with bigger average SVL size and average body mass.
Baskiera, S. & Jelić, D. (2013) -
Viviparous lizard, Zootoca vivipara (Von Jacquin, 1787), is the only lacertid lizard which is known to have two modes of reproduction. We studied two populations of viviparous lizard: one high mountain population from Mountain Vlašić, Bosnia and Herzegovina and another from lowlands in Spačva, Croatia. Viviparous females from Vlašić (BIH) were collected on grassland on 1800 to 1900 m a.s.l. and are considered to be Zootoca vivipara vivipara (Von Jacquin, 1787), while oviparous females, collected in floodplain forests of Spačva (80 to 90 m a.s.l.; CRO) are considered to be Zootoca vivipara pannonica (Lac & Kluch, 1968). Our main goals were to collect data on reproductive traits of newly discovered oviparous population of viviparous lizard in Spačva, Croatia and comparison to nominal viviparous population. A comparative analysis of reproductive traits (e.g. clutch size, female body size, hatchling body size) of two subspecies were made and most significant difference was in egg incubation period. In oviparous population egg incubation period was 19 to 22 days, while comparatively in viviparous population it lasted only about 30 minutes. Total body length was larger in viviparous females, as expected, as well as the clutch size in oviparous females. Some of the reproductive traits did not result in expected correlation, possibly due to small sample size.
Baskiera, S. & Jelić, D. (2015) -
Battisti, C. & Luiselli, L. (2011) -
In connectivity conservation and ecological network planning, the selection of focal fragmentationsensitive species represents a priority step. Nevertheless, despite their strategic role, selection of focal species has traditionally been carried out using charismatic and/or non objective approaches. In this way, actions of planning and conservation could be ineffective. Using as a case study Italian reptiles, we apply an expert-based approach for the selection of focal species on the basis of sensitivity to components of habitat fragmentation (habitat area reduction, increase of habitat isolation, increase of edge effect and landscape matrix disturbance) and of intrinsic ecological traits of the species (trophic level, dispersal ability, body size, niche breadth, rarity). The threshold values for each component of fragmentation defined a set of 21 focal species that can be divided into the three macro-components of human-induced habitat fragmentation (HIHF) towards which they show a sensitivity, the suitable spatial scale of populations and relative suitable habitat categories. Among these species, seven can be sampled easily with standard, low-cost field protocols. The selected species largely coincide with the species known in literature as fragmentation-sensitive.
Baur, B. (1979) -
Bauwens, D. (1981) -
Bauwens, D. (1999) -
The life history of an organism is the combination of age-specific survival probabilities and fecundities
it displays in its natural environment. Hence, an organism`s life history is characterised
by its age and size at maturity, frequency of reproduction, clutch or litter size, size of eggs and
hatchlings, and survivorship at different life stages (as embryos, neonates, immatures, adults).
Variation in these traits can be studied at different levels: within a population, among populations
of a single species, and among different species. I here give an overview of studies that explored
life history variation in European lacertid lizards.
Bauwens, D. & Garland, T. & Castilla, A.M. & Van Damme, R. (1995) -
Oganismal performance abilities occupy a central position in phenotypic evolution; they are determined by suites of interacting lower-level traits (e.g., morphology and physiology) and they are a primary focus of natural selection. The mechanisms by which higher levels of organismal performance are achieved during evolution are therefore fundamentally important for understanding correlated evolution in general and coadaptation in particular. Here we address correlated evolution of morphological, physiological, and behavioral characteristics that influence interspecific variation in sprint speed in a clade of lacertid lizards. Phylogenetic analyses using independent contrasts indicate that the evolution of high maximum sprinting abilities (measured on a photocell-timed racetrack) has occurred via the evolution of (1) longer hind limbs relative to body size, and (2) a higher physiologically optimum temperature for sprinting. For ectotherms, which experience variable body temperatures while active, sprinting abilities in nature depend on both maximum capacities and relative performance levels (i.e., percent of maximum) that can be attained. With respect to temperature effects, relative performance levels are determined by the interaction between thermal physiology and thermoregulatory behavior. Among the 13 species or subspecies of lizards in the present study, differences in the optimal temperature for sprinting (body temperature at which lizards run fastest) closely matched interspecific variation in median preferred body temperature (measured in a laboratory photothermal gradient), in- dicating correlated evolution of thermal physiology and thermal preferences. variability of the preferred body tem- peratures maintained by each species is, across species, negatively correlated with the thermal-performance breadth (range of body temperatures over which lizards can run relatively fast). This pattern leads to interspecific differences in the levels of relative sprint speed that lizards are predicted to attain while active at their preferred temperatures. The highest levels of predicted relative performance are achieved by species that combine a narrow, precise distribution of preferred temperatures with the ability to sprint at near-maximum speeds over a wide range of body temperatures. The observed among-species differences in predicted relative speed were positively correlated with the interspecific variation in maximum sprinting capacities. Thus, species that attain the highest maximum speeds are (1) also able to run at near-maximum levels over a wide range of temperatures and (2) also maintain body temperatures within a narrow zone near the optimal temperature for sprinting. The observed pattern of correlated evolution therefore has involved traits at distinct levels of biological organization, that is, morphology, physiology, and behavior; and trade- offs are not evident. We hypothesize that this particular trait combination has evolved in response to coadaptational selection pressures. We also discuss our results in the context of possible evolutionary responses to global climatic change.
Bauwens, D. & Heulin, B. & Pilorge, T. (1987) -
Bauwens, D. & Munsters, K. (1997) -
Bauwens, D. & Nuijten, K. & Wezel, H. van & Verheyen, R.F. (1987) -
The role of colour pattern and odiferous cues in sex identification by adult males of the lizard Lacerta vivipara was examined by observing their behavioural response towards several types of introduced conspecific adults. Reproductive males courted both receptive and non-receptive adult females. In addition, they courted introduced males that were painted to mimic the females’ colour pattern, indicating that pigmentation functions in sex recognition. Responses of males to females painted as males, untreated females, and uniformly black painted females were identical. This demonstrates that males do not rely exclusively on colour pattern for sex recognition. Odour does not seem to be important as a secondary factor in stimulating courtship. The possible contribution of other stimuli to sex identification is discussed.
Bauwens, D. & Strijbosch, H. & Stumpel, A.H.P. (1983) -
In this paper we provide quantitative information on the occurrence of larvae and nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus in populations of the lizards Lacerta agilis and L. vivipara. Levels of infestation were rather low, at least when compared with those of small mammals and sheep. Hence we suppose that lizards feed only a minor fraction of the total tick population. Differences in tick loads among lizard subpopulations are probably attributable to difference in body size and mobility among the host groups. Ticks exhibit a markedly clumped distribution on the lizards. This distribution pattern fits with the negative binomial distribution. The overdispersed distribution of tick larvae in the field and aspects of the lizards` behaviour are considered as factors which contribute to the observed infestation patterns. Tick larvae were active throughout summer, with peak levels occurring during June-July. Nymphs were most numerous during May-June but almost absent during the summer months. Almost always ticks were attached near the lizards` forelimbs. Possible mortality resulting from tick infestation does not contribute significantly to the overall lizard mortality. Hence, these ectoparasites seem to have but a minor impact on the lizard populations.
Differences in tick loads among lizard subpopulations are probably attributable to difference in body size and mobility among the host groups.
Ticks exhibit a markedly clumped distribution on the lizards. This distribution pattern fits with the negative binomial distribution. The overdispersed distribution of tick larvae in the field and aspects of the lizards` behaviour are considered as factors which contribute to the observed infestation patterns.
Tick larvae were active throughout summer, with peak levels occurring during June-July. Nymphs were most numerous during May-June but almost absent during the summer months. Almost always ticks were attached near the lizards` forelimbs. Possible mortality resulting from tick infestation does not contribute significantly to the overall lizard mortality. Hence, these ectoparasites seem to have but a minor impact on the lizard populations.
Bauwens, D. & Thoen, C. (1981) -
(1) We studied the escape tactics and the vulnerability to predation of reproducing and non-reproducing common lizards, Lacerta vivipara. (2) Observations on the escape behaviour of lizards in a field population indicated that gravid females allow a human predator to approach closer and that they flee less far than their non-reproducing conspecifics. This confirms the prediction, based on the graphical model of Vitt & Congdon (1978), that during pregnancy female L. vivipara should shift their escape tactics toward a longer application of crypsis. (3) Gravid females are hampered in locomotion by the weight of the clutch and hence are probably poorly efficient in escaping predation by running speed. (4) Our capture rates of males and gravid females were not different, but an inexperienced observer captured males more frequently than females. These data together with information on the diet of a natural predator and on the mortality rates of adult lizards, suggest that females are not highly vulnerable to predation during pregnancy. (5) We argue that current information in the literature does not show that reproducing lizards suffer high predation rates. (6) The observed shift in escape behaviour of reproducing L. vivipara is considered as adaptive with regard to their high relative clutch mass and their live-bearing habits.
The number of transverse rows of ventral scales differs between male and female Lacerta vivipara JACQUIN. The number of scale rows is fixed in individual lizards. We demonstrate te usefulness of this dimorphic character to distinguish between the sexes in juvenile Lacerta vivipara in field studies.
Bauwens, D. & Van Damme, R. & Vanderstighelen, D. & Thoen, C. & Sanders, D. & Wenzel, H. van & Verheyen, R.F. (1987) -
Bauwens, D. & Van Damme, R. & Verheyen, R.F. (1989) -
In individual male Vipera berus (Nilson, 1980), and several closely related species (Saint Girons, 1980), the onset of mating activities coincides with the completion of the first annual or spring molt. This `prenuptial` molting is highly synchronized among individuals and has been suggested to be the event that triggers mating activities (Nilson, 1980). During a study examining the timing of female reproductive activities in a field population of Lacerta vivipara (Bauwens and Verheyen, 1985), the authors noted a synchronized spring molting in male lizards at the onset of the mating period. Based on these observations the authors hypothesized that, as in V. berus , spring shedding would coincide with the onset of mating activities in individual male L. vivipara . The authors here report and discuss results of a behavioral test of this hypothesis.
Bauwens, D. & Verheyen, R.F. (1980) -
Bauwens, D. & Verheyen, R.F. (1985) -
During a field study examining the live-bearing lizard Lacerta vivipara, we estimated the timing of mating, ovulation and parturition in individual females. Reproduction was synchronized, especially among the larger (older) females. The timing of all reproductive acts was inversely correlated with female size: smaller females have delayed reproductive activities relative to the larger lizards. The timing of copulation and parturition were related to the timing of ovulation in individual females. Thus, females which finished vitellogenesis early tended to mate early and gave birth to their young on an early date. Benefits of early reproduction include: attainment of the highest size-adjusted body weight by the post-reproductive females at the onset of hibernation; early born juveniles reach the largest size at the end of the activity season. The delay of reproduction in the smaller females is coincident with their relatively high growth rates and reduced lipid stores. Allocation of energy to reproduction appears to occur at a slow rate in the smaller adults and probably accounts for the delay in reproductive activities. We therefore consider the postponement of reproduction as a cost of rapid growth. The timing of reproduction in an individual female seems to be the result of an interaction between the benefits of early breeding and the pay-offs of rapid growth.
Bauwens, D. & Verheyen, R.F. (1987) -
Variation in reproductive traits (sexual maturity, clutch size, clutch weight, mean egg mass, newborn weight) was studied during a four year period in a population of the live-bearing lizard Lacerta vivipara. Sexual maturity was associated with attaining a minimum body size. Clutch size increased with female body length and litter weight increased with clutch size. A major component of the within year variation in these reproductive traits was attributable to female size. Analysis of successive clutches in individual females indicated that a significant fraction of the variation in litter size, adjusted for female length, was due to consistent differences between individuals. Newborn weight varied within and among litters, but no relations between hatchling mass or mean egg mass in a litter and other traits were detected. Size-adjusted reproductive performances remained constant during the course of this study, even though environmental conditions (weather factors, food availability) varied annually. Observed among year variations in reproductive characteristics were attributable to differences in the body size distributions of the adult females.
Size-adjusted reproductive performances remained constant during the course of this study, even though environmental conditions (weather factors, food availability) varied annually. Observed among year variations in reproductive characteristics were attributable to differences in the body size distributions of the adult females.
Bayer, F. (1893) -
Bea, A. (1978) -
In this note new faunistic data from Lacerta vivipara JACQUIN, 1787, are presen- ted. From them it can be said that there is a uniform distribution of the species in the north of the Iberian Peninsula.Other data on the biology, coloration and habitat of these species in the Basque Country are also presented.
Bea, A. (1981) -
A description of the geographical area, soil. vegetation, clima and herpetofauna from the province of Guipuzcoa (Spain) has been made. From a climatical point of view, it has been set that average rain-full was 1727.9 l/year, with 170.5 rain days. Temperatures are mild. During the year the average temperature is 12.6ºC. Along 1978-1979, 796 observations of amphibians and reptiles species have been made. Quotations are distributed by months and by species. For taxonomicals groups correlations have been calculated in order to see the relationship with climatology. At the same time multiple regresion methods have been also used in both the cases results have been positive. Reptiles and lizards species presents a negative correlation with precipitation. Lizards species also with the days of rain-full. All the species, reptiles, lizards and snakes presents a positive correlation with the maximum, mean and minimum temperatures. Reptiles, lizards and snakes presents a positive correlation with the maximum-minimum difference temperature. By the other hand, we comment the relationship between environmental factors and the sun`s time, and the catchings of amphibians and reptiles. Among considered environmental variables, the slope orientation, insolation, cloudness and wind have been choosen. Lastly, spatial distribution of every species has been presented. The 89.6% of the grid squares presents at least one observation. So, for each species found in Guipuzcoa, temporal and spatial distribution and habitat are comented. Up to present, in Guipuzcoa the following species of amphibians and reptiles have been found: Salamandra salamandra, Triturus helveticus, T. marmoratus, Bufo bufo, Alytes obstetricans, Hyla arborea, Rana ridibunda, Rana temporaria, Anguis fragilis, Lacerta schreiberi, L. viridis. L. vivipara, Podarcis muralis, Coronella austriaca, C. girondica, Elaphe longissima, Natrix maura, N. natrix y Vipera seoanei.
Bea, A. & Guillaume, M. & Arrayago, M. & Heulin, B. & Pasteur, G. (1990) -
Beck, P. (1943) -
Beebee, T. (2014) -
Behrens, M. & Fartmann, T. & Hölzel, N. (2009) -
Belcheva, R. & Biserkov, V. & Ivlieva, H. & Beschkov, V. & Petkov, P. (1986) -
Belichon, S. (1997) -
Belik, V. (2011) -
Belik, V.P. (2014) -
Research of the herpethofauna of the Lower Volga area began by academic expeditions of the 18 century.
As a result of these researches, many new species of amphibians and reptiles were described. Some of
these species descriptions are recognized as the priority ones. The earliest data on amphibians and reptiles
in the territory of the current Volgograd region were collected at the beginning of the 19 century (Kondratyev,
1885). Important data on the Sarepta amphibians and reptiles were also published by A. Becker
(1855). Later, a new viper species was described on the basis of the Sarepta materials (Christoph, 1861).
At the beginning of the 20 century, materials on amphibians and reptiles were collected by V. Kiziritsky
in the territory of the Tsaritsyn (currently Volgograd) region (1913). The results of these works are reflected
in A. M. Nikolsky`s reports (1915, 1916, and 1918). A next stage of research began in the middle
of the 20 century by works of the Stalingrad zoologists (N. A. Kosareva, B. S. Kubantsev, T. I. Zhukova,
N. N. Kolyakin, etc.). Later, zoologists from Moscow and other Russian cities conducted their research
there as well. The results of all these studies on inventory of the herpethofauna of the Volgograd region
are summarized in Professor B.S. Kubantsev’s works (1996, 2003, etc.). Now, local zoologists continue
studying the amphibian and reptile fauna of the Volgograd region. A significant contribution to our
knowledge on distribution, number and ecology of reptiles was brought by Saratov researchers. But the
herpethofauna inside a considerable territory of the Lower Volga area is still poorly studied.
Key words: amphibians, reptiles, fauna, study, history, Volgograd region, Russia.
Белик В.П. (2014) -
Изучение герпетофауны Нижнего Поволжья началось в академических экспедициях ХVIII в. В результате этих исследований было описано много новых видов амфибий и рептилий, часть из которых признана сейчас как валидными. Первые сведения о земноводных и пресмыкающихся на территории нынешней Волгоградской области были собраны в начале ХIХ в. (Кондратьев, 1885). Важные сведения о герпетофауне Сарепты опубликовал также A. Becker (1855). Позже по материалам из Сарепты был описан новый вид гадюки (Christoph, 1861). В начале ХХ в. на территории Волгоградской области герпетологические материалы собирал В. Кизирицкий (1913). Результаты этих работ содержатся в сводках А. М. Никольского (1915, 1916, 1918). Следующий этап исследований начался в середине ХХ в. работами сталинградских зоологов (Н. А. Косарева, Б. С. Кубанцев, Т. И. Жукова, Н. Н. Колякин и др.). Позже здесь проводили исследования также зоологи из Москвы и других городов России. Итоги всех этих работ по инвентаризации герпетофауны Волгоградской области подведены в ряде статей Б. С. Кубанцева (1996, 2003 и др.). Сейчас герпетофауну Волгоградской области продолжают изучать местные зоологи. Большой вклад в познание распространения, численности и экологии рептилий внесли также саратовские исследователи. Но герпетофауна значительной территории Нижнего Поволжья по-прежнему остается еще слабо изученной.
Bellenque, S. & Gadot, A.-S. & Mionnet, A. (2014) -
Belliure, J. & Meylan, S. & Clobert, J. (2004) -
Many animals exhibit dramatic responses when subjected to a stressor. A classic marker of the stress response is an increase in plasma glucocorticoids, but this constitutes only one step in the cascade from experience of a stressor to wider organismal changes, including behavior. The behavioral sensitivity to glucocorticoids would determine the consequences of the stress-related alteration of behavior for the organism. In this study we explored, under laboratory conditions, the prenatal and postnatal effects of corticosterone on activity and thermoregulation of juveniles of the common lizard, Lacerta vivipara. Activity was measured as the time spent moving and the time spent scratching the wall in an empty terrarium. Thermoregulatory behavior was measured as the time spent motionless under a light bulb. Activity and thermoregulation of juveniles of the common lizard showed a different sensitivity to prenatal and postnatal corticosterone treatment, modulated by juvenile sex and maternal condition. Prenatal corticosterone manipulation influenced the time spent moving in both sexes. By contrast, only juvenile females increased the time spent scratching the walls of the terrarium when corticosterone was delivered both at the prenatal and postnatal stage. Prenatal hormone manipulation increased the time spent basking by juveniles issued from large females. These results suggest that, in addition to influencing a variety of behavioral and morphological traits, corticosterone may also play an important role in the regulation of activity and thermoregulation of juvenile lizards, modulated by individual sex and maternal condition.
Beltra, S. (2013) -
The list of amphibians and reptiles living in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur constitutes an inventory of up-to-date knowledge on herpetofauna.
Beltremieux, E. (1884) -
Bennati, R. (1988) -
The author describes the results of many years of research on the erpetological fauna of Mount Adamello.
Bennati, R. & Mazzi, F. & Sportelli, L. (1975) -
Berezowski, T. & Kosmider, J. & Greczuk, M. & Chormanski, J. (2015) -
Reptile habitats are described using various indices. The definitions of such indices are crucial, as they are applied to habitat modelling for numerous species on local to continental scales. We examined the Leaf Area Index (LAI) for its value as a tool for determining reptile habitat. During measurements carried out in spring and summer months between 2011 and 2013, LAI values were assessed and surveys were conducted on reptile fauna at 11 survey sites in the Solska Forest and Roztocze National Parks areas in Eastern Poland. In total, six Squamata reptiles occurring in Poland were found. We determined that LAI can be utilized as a reptile habitat index, with reptile species associated with LAI seasonal variability as well as LAI range. Moreover, we found that the higher the LAI median value, the greater the variety of reptile species. These findings are useful for development of spatial models of habitats based on LAI as they point to the importance of its seasonal variation.
Berger, H. (1999) -
Bergman, J. (1990) -
Bergmans, W. & Zuiderwijk, A. (1986) -
Berman, D.I. & Bulakhiova, N.A. & Alfimov, A.V. & Meshcheryakova, E.N. (2016) -
The common lizard Zootoca vivipara has the largest range of all the terrestrial reptiles which includes the subarctic regions of the Palaearctic. The species provides a unique model for studying the strategies of adaptation of a reptile to extreme low winter temperatures. The aim of our research was to determine whether this species survives the severe winters of Siberia, including Yakutia, due to its exceptional cold hardiness or due to wintering in abnormally warm places. The cold hardiness limit of lizards from the southeast of Western Siberia was lower than in conspecific European populations (-4 _C) and was the record low for all adult reptiles. In dry substrate (water content 13–14 %), 21 % of lizards survived at temperatures from -3 to -10 _C, but in wet substrate (70–80 %) none of them survived even at slightly below-zero temperatures. The survivors remained in a supercooled state until the temperature dropped to about -3 _C, and then they froze and could remain frozen for over 2 months. In most biotopes examined in the southeast of Western Siberia, soil temperatures at the depth of the lizard hibernacula (5–13 cm) were higher than -10 _C. Despite very cold air, similar winter soil temperatures were recorded in the warmest lizard habitats in Yakutia, due to the soilheating effect of unfrozen groundwater in talik zones. Thus, extensive distribution of the common lizard in Yakutia is determined not only by its exceptional cold hardiness but also by specific hydrogeological conditions maintaining winter soil temperatures above its tolerance limit.
Bernini, F. & Bonini, L. & Ferri, V. & Gentilli, A. & Razzetti, E. & Scali, S. (2004) -
Berroneau, M. (2010) -
Beshkov, V. & Beron, P. (1964) -
Beshkov, V. & Dushkov, D. (1981) -
Beshkov, V. & Nanev, K. (2006) -
Bestion, E. & Clobert, J. & Cote, J. (2015) -
Range shift, a widespread response to climate change, will depend on species abilities to withstand warmer climates. However, these abilities may vary within species and such intraspecific variation can strongly impact species responses to climate change. Facing warmer climates, individuals should disperse according to their thermal optimum with consequences for species range shifts. Here, we studied individual dispersal of a reptile in response to climate warming and preferred temperature using a semi-natural warming experiment. Individuals with low preferred temperatures dispersed more from warmer semi-natural habitats, whereas individuals with higher preferred temperatures dispersed more from cooler habitats. These dispersal decisions partly matched phenotype-dependent survival rates in the different thermal habitats, suggesting adaptive dispersal decisions. This process should result into a spatial segregation of thermal phenotypes along species moving ranges which should facilitate local adaptation to warming climates. We therefore call for range shift models including intraspecific variation in thermal phenotype and dispersal decision.
Bestion, E. & Jacob, S. & Zinger, L. & Gesu L. di & Murielle, R. & Cote, J. (2017) -
Climate change is now considered to be the greatest threat to biodiversity and ecological networks, but its impacts on the bacterial communities associated with plants and animals remain largely unknown. Here, we studied the consequences of climate warming on the gut bacterial communities of an ectotherm, the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara), using a semi-natural experimental approach. We found that 2–3 °C warmer climates cause a 34% loss of populations’ microbiota diversity, with possible negative consequences for host survival.
Bestion, E. & Teyssier, A. & Aubret, F. & Clobert, J. & Cote, J. (2014) -
Predation is a strong selective pressure generating morphological, physiological and behavioural responses in organisms. As predation risk is often higher during juvenile stages, antipredator defences expressed early in life are paramount to survival. Maternal effects are an efficient pathway to produce such defences. We investigated whether maternal exposure to predator cues during gestation affected juvenile morphology, behaviour and dispersal in common lizards (Zootoca vivipara).We exposed 21 gravid females to saurophagous snake cues for one month while 21 females remained unexposed (i.e. control). We measured body size, preferred temperature and activity level for each neonate, and released them into semi-natural enclosures connected to corridors in order to measure dispersal. Offspring from exposed mothers grew longer tails, selected lower temperatures and dispersed thrice more than offspring from unexposed mothers. Because both tail autotomy and altered thermoregulatory behaviour are common antipredator tactics in lizards, these results suggest that mothers adjusted offspring phenotype to risky natal environments (tail length) or increased risk avoidance (dispersal). Although maternal effects can be passive consequences of maternal stress, our results strongly militate for them to be an adaptive antipredator response that may increase offspring survival prospects.
Beutler, A. & Heckes, U. (1984) -
Beutler, A. & Kaule, G. (1984) -
Biard, H. (1991) -
Biehler, J.G. & Scholl, G. (1976) -
Biella, H.-J. (1974) -
BIJ12 (2017) -
Billings, D.R. (1986) -
Bimmer, E. (1949) -
Birckel, S. (2003) -
Bischoff, W. (1973) -
Bischoff, W. (1996) -
New informations concerning systematical questions within the family Lacertidae, which were published during the last year, are presented.
Bischoff, W. (2001) -
Bischoff, W. (2006) -
Biserkov, V. (2007) -
Biserkov, V. & Naumov, B. & Tsankov, N. & Stoyanov, A. & Petrov, B. &Dobrev, D. & Stoev , P. (2007) -
The current book provides a synthesis of the information concern-
ing field identification of all the species and subspecies of Amphibia
and Reptilia hitherto registered in Bulgaria. It comprises 61 species
and 23 subspecies, among which 5 species (Pelophylax lessonae, P.
kurtmuelleri, Hemidactylus turcicus, Eremias arguta, Montivipera
xanthina) that have not been found yet on the territory of the
country, but which are known from sites in proximity to Bulgar-
ian frontiers. The frogs and toads are represented with 14 spe-
cies, newts and salamanders with 6 species, turtles and tortoises
with 7 species (Trachemys scripta introduced; Caretta caretta and
Chelonia mydas considered extinct), and snakes with 19 species
(Vipera aspis and V. ursinii considered extinct). The structure of
each species’ description includes the following headings: Name,
Diagnosis, General Distribution, Distribution in Bulgaria, Habitats,
and Biology. Besides in Bulgarian and Latin, all species are sup-
plemented with their English, French, German and Russian names.
All synonyms in the main herpetological literature are listed after
the currently accepted Latin name. Original keys for identification
of the families, genera and species, based entirely on morphologi-
cal characters of adult specimens, as well as on the structure of
amphibians’ eggs and larvae, are elaborated to facilitate the users.
A photo gallery, comprising original colour photos shot in nature,
and numerous line drawings of different key characters are made
for better distinction between the species. For purely conservation-
al reasons, the distribution maps not only indicate the scientifically
confirmed species distribution in the country, but also show the
areas with suitable habitats where a given species is likely to oc-
cur. The degree of suitability is indicated with a different degree
of shading: optimal (black); suboptimal (80% gray); suitable (60%
gray); less suitable (20% gray); white means unsuitable. The guide
is also introducing the readers to some general aspects of the tax-
onomy, systematics, morphology, biology and ecology of herpeto-
fauna. Special chapters are devoted to the methods of observation
and capture of amphibians and reptiles, first aid after a snake’s
bite, and the relationship between herpetofauna – humans. The
status of each species according to main biodiversity conservation
acts and conventions is given in Table 1. Being the first publication
of its kind, the book is intended for professional herpetologists,
students or nature lovers.
Blab, J. (1976) -
Blab, J. (1980) -
Reptiles range in the Federal Republic of Germany with the most endangered groups of animals and conservation measures are therefore of great importance for their sur- vival.
The ecological requirements of all twelve native species are precisely stated: climatic and microclimatic conditions, substrate humidity, vegetation structures, animals for prey, microstructures, hiding places, hibernation quarters and oviposition sites are decisive factors for the absence or presence of the particular species. The climatic factors are most important for those xerothermic species, which usually reach the northern limit of their range in our country. According to their habitat preference the following three eco- logical groups of reptiles can be separated: (a) Species dependent on open water, (b) species of open to semi-open dry habitats, (c) ecological generalists. The species-specific data regarding the minimal population and habitat size are mostly unknown, but some experimentally obtained data are available.
The indigenous species of reptiles are especially endangered through the following factors: (1) Destruction of habitats; (2) direct and indirect poisoning; (3) direct pro- secution and indirect destruction; (4) expulsion through human interference; (5) natural harmful effects (especially of climatic nature).
The extent and effects of endangering and corresponding counter-measures are dis- cussed. Special attention is paid to the general aspects of habitat protection, the priorities and model representation of conservation and development measures for reptile habitats.
The occurence of reptiles in xerothermic grassland can be secured only if the direct destruction of the habitat by building up, afforestation, wine growing, fertilization and other kinds of intensive use of the land are run down, however, also the secondary fac- tors must forma part of the management: natural succession of crops as in extensive agri- cultural methods, sheep grazing, mowing or combination of mowing and burning.
The maintenance and reproduction of reptile populations ·of woodlands needs the provision of light woods, managed according to old methods, and additionally the pro- vision and maintenance of extended and structurally abundant forest edges. The typical reptile population in an area of intensive agriculture requires at least four hectare of extensively managed grassland per each square kilometre; chis area can be either in one part or consist of small scattered `ecological cells`.
In order eo maincain ehe reptiles inhabiting wetlands, all efforcs regarding an in- creased draining of these areas must be strict!y prevented. The semi-natural fens and wet meadows need regular management: mowing and removal of mowed grass. For ehe Euro- pean pond terrapin (Emys orbicularis) and the Dice snake (Natrix tessellata) it is pos- sible eo increase ehe qualicy of ehe habitat if additional undisturbed sites for oviposition and sunbathing could be provided. This equally applies to ehe Adder (Vipera berus) and the Grass snake (Natrix natrix). The shortage of food for ehe young specimens could be obviated by establishing amphibian habitats.
Blab, J. (1982) -
The paper discusses the possibilities of methodical improvements of faunistic discern- ing and mapping of reptiles in central Europe. These are based on the knowledge of the biology, behaviour and phenology of central European species. The main topics of the discussion are the procedures in the field and the influence of weather, time of day, and season on the activity of the species to be recorded. Questions related to quantitative surveys are also dealt with.
The activity of reptiles is determined by a complex of variable external factors so that only the following basic rules for the efficient recording of reptiles in central Europe can be made:
e All fast movements as well as any kind of disturbing of the ecotope have to be avoided,
0 recording during cool, chilly, rainy or windy weather is rather useless, perhaps with some exceptions, e. g. of the Adder (Vipera berus),
e the most advantageous periods for recording are from April to mid-June and mid- August to late September/ early October,
• the most advantageous times of day are between 9 and 12 a. m. and again from 17 to 19 p. m., Slow worm (Anguis fragilis) a litt!e earlier and later. The observation opportunities differ from species to species, according to the behaviour, e. g. sunbath- ing or territorial behaviour of species such as in case of the Green lizard (Lacerta viridis) exhibiting its blue throat,
e the activity of reptiles is particularly advantageous for recording during sunny days following longer periods of rain as well as during the high humidity (i. e. `close, sultry weather`) before thunderstorms.
Blab, J. & Brüggemann, P. & Sauer, H. (1991) -
Blackburn, D.G. (1982) -
Reproductive mode data were extracted piecemeal from the literature and superimposed over currently accepted phylogenies to permit estimation of the minimum frequencies with which viviparity (live-bearing) has evolved in lizards, aswell as to facilitateanalysisoffactors hypothesizedto inlluencethis evolution. Viviparity has arisen on at least 45 separate occasions in the Sauria. Each ofthese origins is pinpointed phylogeneticallyas far as is now possible. Ofthese origins, 22 have occurred in the Scincidae, ten in the Iguanidae, five in the Anguidae, two each in the Lacertidae and Gekkonidae, and one each in the Chamaeleontidae, Xantusiidae, Agamidae, and Cordylidae. Further origins may be detected in the Scincidae, Iguanidae, and Diploglossa as phylogenetic relationships are elucidated. Over 19 % of the saurian species are live-bearing, and about 2/3 of the viviparous species are skinks. Most of the sub-generic saurian origins ofviviparity have occurred in cold climates, possibly as an adaptation to facilitate maternal thermoregulation of the developing embryos. Phylogenetic distributions of these origins are consistent with hypotheses that genetic sex-determination of the male-heterogametic type as weil as a tendency towards egg`retention preadapt a lineage for viviparity. Evolution of the live-bearing mode may be constrained by temperature-dependent sex determination, female heterogamety, and formation of highly calcified eggshells.
Blaimont, P.R. (2019) -
Climate change is predicted to severely impact species distributions and extinction risk in the coming decades. Ectotherms, such as lizards, are of particular concern due to their dependence on environmental temperatures to survive and reproduce. The predictions of extreme weather events and increases in global mean temperatures will affect the ability of these organisms to carry out important functions such as feeding or breeding. While we predict that these organisms will face challenges from climate change, examining whether they show evidence of coping with these changes is critical for determining extinction risk and making conservation decisions. In this dissertation, I use treatments of 3-hour (short), 6-hour (mid/control), and 9-hour (long) access to basking heat to investigate how different climate extremes, predicted to increase and worsen under climate change, would impact various aspects of pregnant viviparous European common lizards (Zootoca vivipara). The 3-hour treatments reflect an unusually long series of cool days limiting thermoregulation, 6-hours reflects the “normal” period of contemporary climate and 9-hours reflects periods of long-duration heat spells. In Chapter 1, I look at the flexibility of females to modify their behavior to different basking treatments and how intraspecific variation between populations plays a role. My results demonstrate these lizards exhibit plasticity in basking behavior in response to varying thermal opportunity. However, the magnitude to which they modify their behavior is significantly tempered by environmental characteristics of their population of origin. In Chapter 2, I investigate how basking treatments influence gestation and offspring phenotype, as the offspring life history stage is one of great importance. We found that offspring phenotype was significantly affected by mother basking treatments with local population differences and sexdependent outcomes on size and viability in juveniles. My findings indicate that cooler and warmer temperatures have different effects on progeny phenotype and may have cascading impacts under climate change in the next generation. In Chapter 3, I examine how parasite load varies between populations and whether basking treatments influence a lizard’s ability to fight infection. The basking treatments influenced changes in parasite load in three of the five populations, where we observed a relatively small increase in parasite abundance in lizards in the short and mid/control basking treatment compared to the long treatment. This difference between populations suggests a context-dependent impact of basking opportunities on the capability of lizards to clear parasite infections, under the warm environment treatment (9-h) and provides further evidence that ectothermic host-blood parasite relationships are likely to be impacted by future and contemporary climate change. The results of this dissertation ultimately highlight the complex impacts climate change can have on these organisms and will hopefully encourage further research while raising awareness of this pressing issue.
Blain, H.-A. & Monzón, A.M. & López-Garcia, J.M. & Lozano-Fernández, I. & Folie, A. (2019) -
Archeological sites usually provide important information about the past distribution of small vertebrate fauna, and by extension about past terrestrial environments and climate in which human activities took place. In this context, Belgium has an interesting location in northwestern Europe between the fully studied zooarcheological records of Germany and England. We present here the revision of the late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stages 3 and 2) collection of the “Caverne Marie-Jeanne” (Hastière-Lavaux, Namur), studied by Jean-Claude Rage in the 1970s and the revision of the whole “indeterminate” small vertebrate materials from the “Caverne Marie-Jeanne” stored in the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (RBINS) Quaternary collections in search of more herpetofaunal remains. It is now by far the largest late Pleistocene collection at RBINS with more than 20,500 recognized bones of amphibians and reptiles and covering the last 60,000 years. The faunal list comprises two urodeles (Lissotriton gr. L. vulgaris and Salamandra salamandra), four anurans (Bufo gr. B. bufo-spinosus, Epidalea calamita, Rana temporaria and Rana cf. R. arvalis), three lizards (Lacerta cf. L. agilis, Zootoca vivipara and Anguis gr. A. fragilis), and three snakes (Natrix gr. N. natrix, Coronella austriaca, and Vipera berus). This study represents the first fossil record in Belgium for L. gr. L. vulgaris, R. arvalis, Z. vivipara, N. gr. N. natrix and C. austriaca. As a whole, this assemblage suggests a patchy humid landscape under colder and dryer climatic conditions in comparison with present ones. This study also underlines the necessity of a primary separation in larger taxonomical categories by the specialist itself.
Blanke, I. (2006) -
Artificial refuges are often recommended as a tool in reptile surveys, especially for slow-worms and smooth snakes. In Britain the use of refuges is much more common than on the continent (with its wide spread wild pigs). Since 2004, refuges are used in two Natura 2000 sites with very poor reptile populations in Lower-Saxony (northwest Germany). Here, the refuges are used in addition to direct search in the open and beneath natural hiding places. The aims of these studies are the evaluation of management success and the monitoring of smooth snakes and sand lizards in Natura 2000 sites. In dry heathlands five wooden boards were placed in each of four sites. In each of four wet heathlands five metal sheets (‘tins’) were placed. In the first year, these 40 refuges led to 32 encounters of reptiles (only lizards) and six species records for the different sites. During the »normal« assessment, 75 encounters and 22 records of species for the eight sites were made. In 2005, the numbers of encounters were similar (110 with refuges, 111 other), but at the different sites the number of species proved beneath refuges was still lower than in the normal search (15 : 20). In the whole period, 142 observations of reptiles were made with the refuges, mainly records of slow-worms (123) and smooth snakes (10). 186 observations were made with the normal search (including 34 under »natural« refuges like tree trunks and litter). 86 observations of sand lizards and 12 of smooth snakes were made in the open. Most of the smooth snake records (26) were made under pre-existing objects (e. g. tree trunks, scrap metal) that provide refuges. The numbers of smooth snake individuals under natural refuges/pre-existing objects, artifical refuges and in the open were similar (7 each). In habitats with good structures the smooth snakes were almost found in the open, whilst they were found mainly under different types of refuges in poorer habitats. In total, 68 % of slow worm, 2 % of sand lizard, 12 % common lizard, 21 % of smooth snake, 25 % of grass snake and 13 % of adder encounters were made under/on refuges. An average of 1.78 reptile and 0.12 smooth snake encounters were made per refuge and year. There were great differences in the effectiveness of refuges in the different areas and for the different species. The literature also shows wide variation in the effectiveness of refuges. In different surveys, they are responsible for 28–99 % of slow-worm, 0–34 % of sand lizard, 0–67 % of common lizard, 0–100 % of smooth snake, 0–88 % of grass snake and 0–74 % of adder encounters.
Blanke, I. (2019) -
Blanke, I. (2020) -
Blanke, I. & Mertens, D. (2013) -
Blasius, W. (1897) -
Blessig, E. (1885) -
Bleu, J. (2011) -
Viviparity (i.e. live-bearing) has evolved many times from oviparity (i.e. egg-laying), especially in squamates (i.e. lizards and snakes). This group is the one that has undergone the highest number of independent evolution of viviparity. Moreover, squamates have evolved viviparity in geologically-recent times and at low taxonomic levels. The common lizard is one of the rare species that exhibits both viviparity and oviparity. I thus used this species for my study on the costs and benefits of viviparity. I first studied adjustments of reproductive investment and gestation costs. I observed the absence of post-ovulatory adjustments of litter size, litter mass and offspring mass. However, I observed that females can adjust these parameters in response to the environmental conditions during vitellogenesis, to their body condition and to their parturition date of the previous year. Then, in order to study gestation costs, I used experimental approaches based on a manipulation of mating opportunity, on two manipulations of litter size, and on a comparison between oviparous and viviparous females. These studies highlighted context-dependent effects of gestation on the immune system, on the thermoregulatory behavior, on the endurance capacity and on the loss of mass of females; however, no effect on survival after parturition was observed. The comparative study showed that reproductive costs were higher for oviparous females than viviparous females before gestation. Furthermore, gestation is a period associated not only with costs but also with maternal effects. I have shown that offspring growth after birth depends on litter size during gestation. However, as often, the underlying mechanism of this maternal effect is not known. To investigate the underlying factors of maternal effects, I have developed an experimental approach based on the in vitro incubation of viviparous lizard embryos. Preliminary results are promising as I have managed to obtain live juveniles by this process. Finally, I have shown effects of grand-maternal age in viviparous lizards. This study gives the first evidence of grand-maternal age effects in a wild population.
Bleu, J. & Galliard, J.F. de & Fitze, P.S. & Meylan, S. & Clobert, J. & Massot, M. (2013) -
Optimisation of reproductive investment is crucial for Darwinian fitness, and detailed long-term studies are especially suited to unravel reproductive allocation strategies. Allocation strategies depend on the timing of resource acquisition, the timing of resource allocation, and trade-offs between different life-history traits. A distinction can be made between capital breeders that fuel reproduction with stored resources and income breeders that use recently acquired resources. In capital breeders, but not in income breeders, energy allocation may be decoupled from energy acquisition. Here, we tested the influence of extrinsic (weather conditions) and intrinsic (female characteristics) factors during energy storage, vitellogenesis and early gestation on reproductive investment, including litter mass, litter size, offspring mass and the litter size and offspring mass trade-off. We used data from a long-term study of the viviparous lizard, Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara. In terms of extrinsic factors, rainfall during vitellogenesis was positively correlated with litter size and mass, but temperature did not affect reproductive investment. With respect to intrinsic factors, litter size and mass were positively correlated with current body size and postpartum body condition of the previous year, but negatively with parturition date of the previous year. Offspring mass was negatively correlated with litter size, and the strength of this trade-off decreased with the degree of individual variation in resource acquisition, which confirms theoretical predictions. The combined effects of past intrinsic factors and current weather conditions suggest that common lizards combine both recently acquired and stored resources to fuel reproduction. The effect of past energy store points out a trade-off between current and future reproduction.
Bleu, J. & Galliard, J.F. le & Meylan, S. & Massot, M. & Fitze, P. (2011) -
Mating is crucial for females that reproduce exclusively sexually and should influence their investment into reproduction. Although reproductive adjustments in response to mate quality have been tested in a wide range of species, the effect of exposure to males and mating per se has seldom been studied. Compensatory mechanisms against the absence of mating may evolve more frequently in viviparous females, which pay higher direct costs of reproduction, due to gestation, than oviparous females. To test the existence of such mechanisms in a viviparous species, we experimentally manipulated the mating opportunity of viviparous female lizard, Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara. We assessed the effect of mating on ovulation, postpartum body condition and parturition date, as well as on changes in locomotor performances and body temperatures during the breeding cycle. Female lizards ovulated spontaneously and mating had no influence on litter size, locomotor impairment or on selected body temperature. However, offspring production induced a more pronounced locomotor impairment and physical burden than the production of undeveloped eggs. Postpartum body condition and parturition dates were not different among females. This result suggests that gestation length is not determined by an embryonic signal. In the common lizard, viviparity is not associated with facultative ovulation and a control of litter size after ovulation, in response to the absence of mating.
Bleu, J. & Massot, M. & Haussy, C. & Meylan, S. (2012) -
Experimental studies have often been employed to study costs of reproduction, but rarely to study costs of gestation. Disentangling the relative importance of each stage of the reproductive cycle should help to assess the costs and benefits of different reproductive strategies. To that end, we experimentally reduced litter size during gestation in a viviparous lizard. We measured physiological and behavioural parameters during gestation and shortly after parturition, as well as survival and growth of females and their offspring. This study showed four major results. First, the experimental litter size reduction did not significantly affect the cellular immune response, the metabolism and the survival of adult females. Second, females with reduced litter size decreased their basking time. Third, these females also had an increased postpartum body condition. As postpartum body condition is positively related to future reproduction, this result indicates a gestation cost. Fourth, even though offspring from experimentally reduced litters had similar weight and size at birth as other offspring, their growth rate after birth was significantly increased. This shows the existence of a maternal effect during gestation with delayed consequences. This experimental study demonstrates that there are some costs to gestation, but it also suggests that some classical trade-offs associated with reproduction may not be explained by gestation costs.
Bleu, J. & Massot, M. & Haussy, C. & Meylan, S. (2013) -
The trade-offs between reproduction and survival or future reproduction represent the costs of reproduction, which are central to the theory of life-history traits evolution. In particular, different stages of the reproductive cycle may be associated with different costs and thus explain the evolution of alternative reproductive strategies. Viviparity (live bearing) has evolved from oviparity (egg laying) several times independently in vertebrates. To better understand these transitions, we aimed to specifically investigate gestation costs in a squamate reptile with a new experimental procedure. We reduced litter size during gestation in the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) with a hormonal injection of arginine vasotocin. This method is less invasive than a surgical method and does not reduce the number of offspring of future reproductive events. We monitored body mass change, immune response, endurance capacity, thermoregulatory behavior, offspring characteristic at birth, female and offspring survival, female body mass gain after parturition, and offspring growth rate after birth. Maternal treatment did not significantly change the offspring characteristics measured. Thus, litter size reduction did not change offspring development during gestation. For the females, there is evidence that endurance capacity during gestation is modified because of the physical burden of the litter and because of physiological changes. With respect to gestation costs, we did not observe a trade-off between the investment during gestation and females` resources postparturition (female body mass) or survival, but there was a facultative trade-off with the immune response. It will be interesting to replicate this study to increase the robustness of these results and to confirm the effects on the endurance capacity and the immune response. Gestation costs seem to be limited in this species, and they should be studied in more detail to evaluate their influence on the evolution of viviparity.
Blosat, B. (1997) -
Bobrov, V.V. (2018) -
Bodenschatz, H. (1957) -
Boettger, O. (1880) -
Boettger, O. (1893) -
Bohle, D. (2004) -
Böhme, W. (1997) -
Böhme, W. (2006) -
Böhme, W. (2010) -
In the herpetological collection of ZFMK 528 scientific species group names are represented by type materi- al. Of these, 304 names are documented by primary type specimens (onomatophores) while for 224 further names sec- ondary type specimens (typoids) are available, ranging chronologically from 1801 to 2010. The list is a shortened pred- ecessor of a comprehensive type catalogue in progress. It lists name bearing types with their catalogue numbers includ- ing information on further type series members also in other institutions, while secondary types are listed only by pres- ence, both in ZFMK and other collections including holotype repositories. Geographic origin and currently valid names are also provided.
Böhme, W. (2016) -
Het Duitse Bonn ligt circa 100 kilometer ten oosten van Maastricht. Ondanks haar verleden als hoofdstad van de Bondsrepubliek Duitsland, is het een relatief kleine stad, gelegen aan de noordrand van het Midden-Rijndal. De Rijn wordt hier nog aan weerskanten gefl ankeerd door heuvels. Na Bonn stroomt hij de laagvlakte bij Keulen binnen, om van daaruit als Beneden-Rijn verder te stromen naar Nederland. Door deze geografi sche situatie is Bonn de noordgrens in de verspreiding van veel dier- en plantensoorten, die na de laatste ijstijd Centraal-Europa via de dalen van Rhône en Rijn hebben geherkoloniseerd. Een bekend herpetologisch voorbeeld hiervan is de muurhagedis (Podarcis muralis).
Böhme, W. & Heulin, B. & Bischoff, W. (1999) -
Böhme, W. & Rödder, D. (2006) -
Boie, F. (1841) -
Bolkay, S.J. (1924) -
Bolkay S.J. (1924) -
Bolkay, S.J. (1929) -
Bombi, P. (2011) -
Bonaparte, C.L. (1839) -
Bonati, B. & Quaresmini, C. & Stancher, G. & Sovrano, V.A. (2017) -
As recent studies have shown a left-eye preference during exploration in Podarcis muralis, which could be strictly related to its territoriality, we tested the same behaviour in a similar species, but one living in different habitats and showing a different ecology. In particular, we assessed the preferential turning direction in adults of a non-territorial lizard, Zootoca vivipara, during the exploration of an unknown maze. At the population level, no significant preference emerged, possibly for the lack of the territorial habit and the characteristics of the natural environment. Nevertheless, females turned to the left more frequently than males did. We hypothesize this as a motor bias, possibly due to a necessity for females to be coordinated and fast in moving in the environment, because of their viviparous condition and the resultant reduction of physical performance during pregnant periods, which are likely to increase vulnerability to predators.
Bonato, L. (2011) -
Bonnaffé, W. & Martin, M. & Mugabo, M. & Meylan, S. & Galliard, J.F. le (2018) -
The understanding of developmental patterns of body coloration is challenging because of the multicomponent nature of color signals and the multiple selective pressures acting upon them, which further depend on the sex of the bearer and area of display. Pigmentary colors are thought to be strongly involved in sexual selection, while structural colors are thought to generally associate with conspecifics interactions and improve the discrimination of pigmentary colors. Yet, it remains unclear whether age dependency in each color component is consistent with their potential function. Here, we address lifelong ontogenetic variation in three color components (i.e. UV, pigmentary, and skin background colors) in a birth cohort of common lizards Zootoca vivipara across three ventral body regions (i.e. throat, chest, and belly). All three color components developed sexual dichromatism, with males displaying stronger pigmentary and UV colors but weaker skin background coloration than females. The development of color components led to a stronger sexual dichromatism on the concealed ventral region than on the throat. No consistent signs of latelife decay in color components were found except for a deceleration of UV reflectance increase with age on the throat of males. These results suggest that body color components in common lizards are primarily nonsenescent sexual signals, but that the balance between natural and sexual selection may be altered by the conspicuousness of the area of display. These results further support the view that skin coloration is a composite trait constituted of multiple color components conveying multiple signals depending on age, sex, and body location.
Borcea, M. (1978) -
Borgula, A. & Bolzern-Tönz, H. (1999) -
Borkin, L.J. & Litvinchuk, S.N. & Rosano, Y.M. (1997) -
The hybrid Rana esculenta (diploid) is first recorded for Moldavia. Bombina variegata was previously
confused with B. bombina, as well as Rana dalmatina was confused with the long-legged R. arvalis. The
first confirmed locality of Lacerta vivipara is given. The occurrence of Eremias arguta in Moldavia is
mentioned. The check-list of 12 species of amphibians and 15 species of reptiles of Moldavia is published.
Borkin, L.Ya. & Darevsky, I.S. (1987) -
Боркин Л.Я. & Даревский И.С. (1987) -
Börner, A.-R. (2015) -
Die Eidechsen im Lahn- und Rheintal gelten als seit Jahrzehnten gut erforscht: Neben der weit verbreiteten Blindschleiche sind Wald-, Zaun- und Mauereidechse und die westliche Smaragdeidechse zu finden. Wichtige, aktuelle Daten enthalten insbesondere die zweibändige Studie der Gesellschaft für Ornithologie und Naturschutz Rheinland.-Pfalz e.V über die Amphibien und Reptilien von Rheinland-Pfalz (1996, Britz et al. (Hrsg.)), die für Rheinland- Pfalz, und die Broschüre der Eheleute Braun (1995), die für den Naturpark Nassau, insbesondere den Rhein-Lahn-Kreis, die Beobachtungen der Vergangenheit zusammenfasst und den aktuellen Stand der Verbreitung wiedergibt. Dennoch erschließt die langjährige Beobachtung vor Ort, wie sie meine über fünfzigjährige Ferienasässigkeit in Bad Ems ermöglicht hat, zusätzliche Erkenntnisse. Das Gebiet der Beobachtungen umfasst im wesentlichen das Lahntal flußab von Limburg und die angrenzenden Mittelgebirge von Westerwald (nördlich) und Taunus (südlich) sowie das rechte Mittelrheintal, vor allem das obere Mittelrheintal (von Koblenz bis Bingen/Rüdesheim), und den angrenzenden Rheingau (von Rüdesheim bis Wiesbaden) (Abb. 1).
Börner, A.-R. (2017) -
The emerald lizard reaches the northern limit of its distribution in the upper Middle Rhine Valley and has stringent, narrow requirements for its habitat. In the last years, habitats, populations, and the number of individuals have been in decline, mainly because of eutrophy and suboptimal grazing in the protected areas as well as an increasing civilization pressure (including domestic cats, tourists, and presumably poachers), less by the rationalized viticulture. The mere protection of the few remaining habitats is not sufficient. It is necessary to restore the historical habitats and to release captive-bred specimens there. A special initiative for the protection of the green lizards in the upper Middle Rhine Valley is required.
Bos, J. (2014) -
Bosat, B. (1997) -
Between March and October 1992 the herpetofauna of the municipality Much was surveyed qualitatively and semiquantitatively on the basis of a square-kilometregrid-map. 9 species of amphibians and 3 species of reptiles were recorded: Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra terrestris), alpine newt (Triturus a. alpestris), smooth newt (Triturus v. vulgaris), palmate newt (Triturus h. helveticus), midwife toad (Alytes o. obstetricans), common toad (Bufo b. bufo), common tree frog (Hyla a. arborea), grass frog (Rana t. temporaria), edible frog (Rana kl. esculenta), pool frog (Rana lessonae); viviparous lizard (Zootoca v. vivipara), slow worm (Anguis f. fragilis) and grass snake (Natrix n. natrix and Natrix n. Helvetica). The distribution of these species is compared with the Situation in Nortrhine-Westphalia (NRW). Grass frog, common toad, alpine newt, smooth newt, viviparous lizard, slow worm and grass snake were widespread and had locally large populations in the municipality Much. The species edible frog, common tree frog, midwife toad and palmate newt were considered to be rare in this area, because only isolated and very small populations exist. The fire Salamander is abundant in the West of the area along the Naaf and Wahn stream valleys, whereas it is absent in the Northeast and the South. The yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata) is considered to be extinct. In contrast to similar studies the amphibians spawned more often in ponds stocked with fish, leading to the conclusion that there is a lack of small water bodies in the investigated area. The loss of this kind of water body, beside the eutrophy caused by fish and cattle breeding, is considered to be the most important threatening factor for the herpetofauna.
Boscá, E. (1877) -
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (1996) -
Bosch, H.A.J. in den & Bout, R.G. (1998) -
The interspecific relationships among female size, clutch size, egg size, and hatchling size were examined for 64 European lacertids. The eggs of all species increased linearly in both linear dimensions and mass during incubation. Across species initial egg mass was positively correlated with juvenile mass, with an allometric relationship exponent of 0.87. Initial egg mass across species increased proportionally with female mass to the power of 0.57. Moreover, an increase in maternal mass was also accompanied by an increase in clutch size. The number of eggs per clutch across species scaled with female mass to the power of 0.39. Removing the effect of female mass resulted in a negative correlation between egg mass and clutch size. Species for which the average egg size was lower than expected on the basis of female mass, tended to have larger relative clutch size. The total egg mass per clutch was about one third of female mass (exponent 0.94).
Bössneck, U. (2008) -
Im Rahmen der lokalfaunistischen Bearbeitung von 184 überwiegend aktuellen Angaben zum Vorkommen von Kriechtieren im Gebiet der Stadt Erfurt liegen für fünf Arten faunistisch-ökologische Daten vor. Auf das zunehmende Problemfeld bezüglich illegal in die Natur gelangter ursprünglich nicht einheimischer Reptilien, insbesondere Wasserschildkröten, wird eingegangen.
Boudjemadi, K. & Martin, O. & Simón, J.C. & Estoup, A. (1999) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1887) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1888) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1890) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1907) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1910) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1917) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1920) -
Bour, R. & Cheylan, M. & Crochet, P.-A. & Geniez, P. & Guyetant, R. & Haffner, P. & Ineich, I. & Naulleau, G. & Ohler, A.-M. & Lescure, J. (2008) -
Bovero, S. & Canalis, L. & Crosetto, S. (2013) -
Bowles, F.D. (1995) -
Bowles, F.D. (2002) -
Bowles, F.D. (2006) -
Braña, F. (1986) -
Braña, F. (1996) -
Die Arbeit basiert auf der Messung verschiedener metrischer Charaktere (Kopf-Rumpf-Länge, Kopflänge, maximale Kopfhöhe, maximale Kopfbreite und Rumpf-Länge) an insgesamt knapp 500 nordspanischen Eidechsen. In die Analyse gingen Mesungen an Podarcis bocagei, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis muralis, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta vivipara, Lacerta lepida, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta viridis (=L. bilineata) ein. Demnach ist das ontogenetische Wachstum von Kopf und Rumpf bei männlichen Tieren isometrisch, während Weibchen hingegen ein allometrisches Wachstum des Rumpfes aufweisen. Mit der verwendeten Methodik (Felsenstein) ließ sich der Geschlechtsdimorphismus am besten durch den weiblichen Fortpflanzungsaufwandes (u. a. Gelegegröße) und damit durch die überproportionale Rumpflänge weiblicher Tiere erklären. Bei Arten mit geringer Fruchtbarkeit bzw. konstanter Gelegegröße (hier: Podarcis hispanica) besteht hingegen nur ein geringer Selektionsdruck in Richtung auf große Weibchen. Dann können Männchen zum größten Geschlecht werden. Ebenfalls durchgeführte Größenmessungen an Beutetieren (Magen-Darminhalte) ergaben vergleichsweise gering abweichende Einnischungen männlicher und weiblicher Eidechsen. Eine Analyse der Mechanismen, die zur Ausprägung von Geschlechtsdimorphismen beitragen, ist sicherlich verdienstvoll. Allerdings ist fraglich, ob die hier verwendeten Methoden allein zu einer befriedigenden Klärung führen. Zum einen wurden pro Art nur wenige Individuen (zwischen 22 und 90) untersucht, was - auch nach Ansicht des Autors - statistisch unbefriedigend ist. Wichtiger dürfte aber wohl sein, dass keinerlei Hinweise darauf vorliegen, inwieweit die aus einem relativ begrenzten Gebiet stammenden Freilandfänge als “typisch“ für die Art gelten können. Hinzu kommt, dass sich mit der verwendeten Methode nur die Parameter weiblicher Fortpflanzungsaufwand und unterschiedliche Nahrungseinnischung, nicht jedoch der dritte vom Autor angesprochene Parameter “Kämpfe zwischen den Männchen“ untersuchen lässt. Zumindest in diesem Kontext bedarf es weiterer Daten, die nur durch Verhaltensbeobachtungen lebender Eidechsen zu gewinnen sind.
Brana, F. (2008) -
In many litter-bearing mammals and in a few viviparous reptiles the sex ratio of the entire brood or the sex of the adjacent fetuses induces sex-speciWc diVerences in the hatchling’s phenotype. This study examines whether the sex of incubation neighbours aVects hatchling characteristics in oviparous common lizards (Lacerta vivipara). Oviparous common lizards lay eggs with thin eggshells and, therefore, are an optimal model organism for studying the eVects of hormone leakage among developing embryos since the strongest evidence for prenatal sex ratio eVects on oVspring development comes from viviparous populations of the same species. Groups of three eggs were incubated together and were categorised according to the sex of the resulting hatchlings as either homosex (three hatchlings of the same sex) or heterosex (one male or one female hatchling plus two siblings of the opposite sex). Hatchlings incubated adjacent to siblings of the same sex had larger body mass and body condition. Males tended to have lower ventral scale counts when incubated with other males. Conversely, females tended to have more ventral scales when incubated with other females, indicative of a more feminised phenotype. There was also a signiWcant interaction between hatchling sex and incubation environment with respect to the length of the fourth digit of the hindlimb, likely indicative of masculinisation in heterosex females. This study suggests steroid diVusion between adjacent eggs in a minimally manipulative experiment and provides the Wrst evidence for developmental eVects of the exogenous hormonal environment in near natural conditions in an oviparous amniote. Implications of these results for the evolution of within-clutch sex ratio are discussed.
Brana, F. & Arrayago, M.J. (1997) -
Braña, F. & Bea, A. (1987) -
Brana, F. & Bea, A. (2002) -
Braña, F. & Bea, A. & Arrayago, M.J. (1991) -
We examined stages of embryonic development at the time of oviposition in 10 populations of seven species of lacertids from northern Spain, including one of the few species of lizards that exhibits reproductive bimodality (Lacerta vivipara). In the species studied, embryonic development at the time of oviposition ranges, as a whole, from stage 22-34 in the classification of Dufaure and Hubert, showing highly significant differences between populations. Lacerta vivipara (two populations; stages from 30-34) and L. monticola (28-31) are the species with a more advanced intrauterine embryogenesis, while at the opposite end one can find Podarcis bocagei (22-26) and P. hispanica (two subspecies: stages from 24-27). Lacerta viridis, L. schreiberi and P. muralis are in an intermediate situation (stages 25-29), without appreciable differences among species. Our data show that species with more advanced egg retention reach the highest elevations in the study area, and there also seems to exist a relationship between the egg retention level and the northern distribution limit for oviparous lizards in Europe. However, there is no evidence of intraspecific variability in that regard. No significant correlations were found between developmental stage at oviposition and female size, clutch size, or egg mass, but relative clutch mass (RCM) was significantly larger in species with a more advanced embryonic development at oviposition. This difference in RCM was mainly due to an increase in clutch size (adjusted for female size) and not to an increase in the mass of individual eggs, which tended to be lower in relation to female mass in those species with a more prolonged egg retention.
Brandt, E. (1867) -
Brandt, E. (1868) -
Brandt, I. & Feuerriegel, K. (2004) -
Brandt, I. & Hamann, K. & Hammer, W. (2018) -
Brandt, T. & Buschmann, H. (2004) -
The following work summarizes and updates the current knowledge on the reptile and amphibian species of the landscape protection area »Wetland of international importance Steinhuder Meer« by numerous original distribution maps and analysis of all available observations. The results show that the landscape protection area is of important significance for the herpetofauna. A total of eleven amphibian and six reptile species were confirmed, and their distribution within the landscape protection area is shown on grid maps. The species are: Triturus vulgaris, T. cristatus, Bufo bufo, B. calamita, Pelobates fuscus, Hyla arborea, Rana temporaria, R. arvalis, R. esculenta, R. lessonae, R. ridibunda, Anguis fragilis, Zootoca vivipara, Lacerta agilis, Natrix natrix, Coronella austriaca and Vipera berus. The species with the largest distribution range within the amphibians and the reptiles, respectively, were Rana arvalis and Natrix natrix. Hyla arborea has disappeared from the area. The preferred habitat distribution of each species in the main habitats is presented and discussed, as well as the decrease or increase of particular species, and the underlying causes. Finally, conservation measures for the herpetofauna of the area are considered.
Braun, M. & Braun, U. (1995) -
Braux, J.-P. (1983) -
Bree, P.J.H. van (1960) -
Breedveld, M.C. (2015) -
Breedveld, M.C. & Fitze, P.S. (2015) -
Reproductive success is determined by the presence and timing of encounter of mates. The latter depends on species-specific reproductive characteristics (e.g., initiation/duration of the mating window), season, and reproductive strategies (e.g., intensity of choosiness) that may potentially mitigate constraints imposed by mating windows. Despite their potentially crucial role for fitness and population dynamics, limited evidence exists about mating window initiation, duration, and reproductive strategies. Here, we experimentally tested the mechanisms of initiation and the duration of the common lizard`s Zootoca vivipara mating window by manipulating the timing of mate encounter and analyzing its effect on (re-)mating probability. We furthermore tested treatment effects on female reproductive strategies by measuring female choosiness. The timing of mate encounter and season did not significantly affect mating probability. However, a longer delay until mate encounter reduced female choosiness. Re-mating probability decreased with re-mating delay and was independent of mating delay. This indicates that mating window initiation depends on mate encounter, that its duration is fixed, and that plastic reproductive strategies exist. These findings contrast with previous beliefs and shows that mating windows per se may not necessarily constrain reproductive success, which is congruent with rapid range expansion and absence of positive density effects on reproductive success (Allee effects). In summary, our results show that predicting the effect of mating windows on reproduction is complex and that experimental evidence is essential for evaluating their effect on reproduction and reproductive strategies, both being important determinants of population dynamics and the colonization of new habitats.
Breedveld, M.C. & Fitze, P.S. (2016) -
The benefits obtained from mating are usually condition-dependent, favouring the evolution of flexible investment during copulation; for example, in terms of invested time, energy or sperm. Flexible investment strategies are predicted to depend on the likelihood of acquiring alternative mates and therefore they should depend on the timing of mate encounter. However, scarce experimental evidence for this hypothesis exists. In the present study, we manipulated the time delay until first mating and the interval between first and second mating in the polygynandrous common lizard Zootoca vivipara. We determined treatment effects on fertilization success and copulation duration, with the latter being a proxy for investment in mating and for the quantity of transferred sperm. The duration of the second copulation decreased with increasing inter-mating interval and depended on the fertilization success of first mates. The former provides evidence for time-dependent investment strategies, most likely resulting from the progression of the female`s reproductive cycle. The fertilization success of first mates increased with increasing inter-mating interval and was higher when females were closer to ovulation, showing that flexible investment strategies significantly affected male reproductive success. This indicates fertilization assurance, which may mitigate the negative effects of low population density on reproductive success (e.g. Allee effects).
Protandry, i.e., the earlier arrival to breeding areas of males than females, has attracted a lot of scientific attention. However, evidence for the evolutionary hypotheses of protandry is surprisingly scarce. Here, we experimentally manipulate the time of emergence from hibernation of males, relative to females, in the common lizard, Zootoca vivipara. We test whether the timing of emergence affects sperm maturation and mating success, to disentangle among proposed selective advantages of protandry. Our results experimentally demonstrate that the timing of emergence affects the date of sperm presence. Moreover, the degree of protandry affected whether males had sperm upon their first encounter with females, but it did not affect the probability of copulating. Mating occurred independent of male fertility and mating during infertility was least common in early emerging males. Early emergence from hibernation by males, relative to females, thus increases the male’s chance of fertilising eggs and later emergence from hibernation by females reduces the female’s probability of mating with infertile males. These results point to direct reproductive benefits of protandry in males and females, where earlier emergence is predicted to increase the male’s opportunities to inseminate mates, and later emergence reduces the female’s probability of copulating with infertile males. This suggests that protandry evolved due to the time required for sperm maturation after emergence from hibernation.
Breedveld, M.C. & San-Jose, L.M. & Romero-Diaz, C. & Roldan, E.R.S. & Fitze, P.S. (2017) -
Females of many iteroparous species face trade-offs between producing one or multiple broods per reproductive season, and over fertilizing broods with sperm from the same or different mates. Both trade-offs might be affected by the availability of males (i.e. absence/presence of males) and the timing and duration of male encounters. Here, we experimentally manipulated the duration of mate availability at the first brood and mate availability per se (i.e. absence/presence of mates) at the second brood, and tested their effects on female and male reproductive success, using the common lizard, Zootoca vivipara, as a model species. Females were either exposed to males for a long period before their first annual reproduction and they could remate before their second annual reproduction (unrestricted treatment), or they were exposed to males for a short period before their first annual reproduction and were not allowed to remate (restricted treatment). Reproductive success of first clutches was not directly affected by the duration of access to males. Remating positively affected the probability of producing a second clutch, and the proportion of viable offspring. Remating by females also affected the reproductive success of males: fewer second clutch eggs were fertilized with stored sperm in unrestricted than restricted females. Sperm presence in males was high until the end of the remating period. Our results suggest a close coevolution between male and female reproductive strategies and point to facultative skipping of second broods when fitness benefits are small. This shows that behavioural strategies are at least partially responsible for multiple annual broods. These behavioural strategies are likely to be widespread, given the multitude of taxa raising multiple broods in some but not all years, and given that in most taxa some but not all individuals produce multiple annual broods.
Breg, A. & Janota, B. & Peganc, M. & Petrovič, I. & Tome, S. & Vamberger, M. (2010) -
Breinl, W. (1961) -
Brelih, S. (1962) -
Bressi, N. (1999) -
The Herpetological Collection of the Trieste Natural History Museum has almost 700 specimens of European Sauria belonging to about 33 taxa, including all the lacertids of northern Adriatic re- gions. The origin of the collection dates back to the foundation of the Museum of Trieste in 1846, but it was increased mainly between 1871 and 1939. The Herpetological Collection of the Trieste Natural History Museum has a great scientific and historical importance; it documents the varia- tion of the composition and distribution of northern Adriatic Sauria fauna during this century, in- cluding endemic varieties typical of little islands.
Bringsøe, H. (2012) -
Es wird über die in Ost-Jütland, Dänemark, im Spätsommer 2009 gemachten Beobachtungen sozialer Interaktionen zwischen einer adulten weiblichen und einer juvenilen Zootoca vivipara berichtet. Die beiden Eidechsen sonnten sich auf einem Holzpfosten und blieben zwischen Regenschauern über eine Zeitspanne von 39 Minuten für die meiste Zeit eng beieinander. Dabei bezümngelten sich die Tiere regelmäßig.
Andere bisher unveröffentlichte und veröffentlichte Daten über ähnliches Verhalten werden zusammengefasst. Es wird gefolgert, dass es aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach soziale Bindungen zwischen Mutter und Jungen in viviparen (lebendgebärenden) Populationen von Z. vivipara gibt, während sie in oviparen (eierlegenden Populationen höchstwahrscheinlich fehlen. Anscheinend handelt es sich dabei um ein übliches Verhalten dieser Art, das allerdings oftmals übersehen wird.
Brinkhof, H. (2011) -
Brom, T. (2015) -
Brown, R.P. (2005) -
A phylogenetic-comparative approach was used to assess and refine existing secondary structure models for a frequently studied region of the mitochondrial encoded large subunit (16S) rRNA in two large lizard lineages within the Scincomorpha, namely the Scincidae and the Lacertidae. Potential pairings and mutual information were analyzed to identify site interactions present within each lineage and provide consensus secondary structures. Many of the interactions proposed by previous models were supported, but several refinements were possible. The consensus structures allowed a detailed analysis of rRNA sequence evolution. Phylogenetic trees were inferred from Bayesian analyses of all sites, and the topologies used for maximum likelihood estimation of sequence evolution parameters. Assigning gamma-distributed relative rate categories to all interacting sites that were homologous between lineages revealed substantial differences between helices. In both lineages, sites within helix G2 were mostly conserved, while those within helix E18 evolved rapidly. Clear evidence of substantial site-specific rate variation (covarion-like evolution) was also detected, although this was not strongly associated with specific helices. This study, in conjunction with comparable findings on different, higher-level taxa, supports the ubiquitous nature of site-specific rate variation in this gene and justifies the incorporation of covarion models in phylogenetic inference.
Brüggemann, F. (1875) -
Brugiere, D. (1987) -
Brugiere, D. (1991) -
Bruno, S. (1986) -
Bruno, S. (1989) -
Bruno, S. & Maugeri, S. (1976) -
Brusch IV, G.A. & Gavira, R.S.B. & Viton, R. & Dupoué, A. Leroux-Coyau, M. & Meylan, S. & Galliard, J.F. le & Lourdais, O. (2020) -
One of the greatest current threats to biodiversity is climate change. However, understanding of organismal responses to fluctuations in temperature and water availability is currently lacking, especially during fundamental life-history stages such as reproduction. To further explore how temperature and water availability impact maternal physiology and reproductive output, we used the viviparous form of the European common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) in a two-by-two factorial design manipulating both hydric and thermal conditions, for the first time. We collected blood samples and morphological measurements during early pregnancy and post-parturition to investigate how water availability, temperature and a combination of the two influence maternal phenology, morphology, physiology and reproductive output. We observed that dehydration during gestation negatively affects maternal physiological condition (lower mass gain, higher tail reserve mobilization) but has little effect on reproductive output. These effects are mainly additive to temperature regimes, with a proportional increase in maternal costs in warmer environments. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering combined effects of water and temperature when investigating organismal responses to climate changes, especially during periods crucial for species survival such as reproduction
Bruyn, F. de (1919) -
Bryant, S.V. & Bellairs, A. d´A. (1970) -
Bryant, S.V. & Breathnach, A.S. & Bellairs, A. D´A. (1967) -
The ultrastructure of the epidermis of the lizard (Lacerta vivipara) one day after sloughing is described. The non-keratinized layers of the epidermis are essentially similar in structure to those of amphibians and mammals. The cells of the basal layer are not however separated from each other by the large spaces described in the amphibian (Farquhar & Palade, 1965). The middle layers of the epidermis at this stage of the sloughing cycle produce neither the characteristic mucous granules found in amphibians nor the keratohyalin granules of mammals. A small number of granules corresponding in size and location to the “Odland bodies” of both mammalian and amphibian epidermis are, however, present. The intermediate layer cells also contain a number of bodies similar in appearance to those described by Farquhar & Palade as lysosomes in amphibian skin. These structures are both osmium iodide and acid phosphatase positive. Unlike the condition in amphibians and mammals, the cytoplasm of cells in the layer immediately beneath the keratinized strata is honeycombed with small vesicles, and contains large irregular vacuoles of uncertain content. Certain nonkeratinizing elements within the epidermis are tentatively interpreted as nerve terminations. Two morphologically distinct keratinized strata can be distinguished, the inner stratum consisting of flattened cells similar to those of the stratum corneum of mammalian epidermis; individual cell outlines cannot be distinguished in the outer stratum, which has a structure similar to that of avian feather keratin. A shallow surface zone of the outer keratinized stratum has been identified as the Oberhautchen. This consists of longitudinally disposed leaflets or laminae which are responsible for the sculptured pattern of the epidermal surface. The observations reported here provide a basis for analysis of changes occurring at other stages of the sloughing cycle.
Buckley, J. (1988) -
Buckley, J. & Cole, M. (2004) -
Buggenum, H.J.M. van (1990) -
In dit artikel worden gegevens over de verspreiding op uurhokbasis van de in Limburg aangetroffen amfibieën en reptielen kort samengevat.
Bulakhova, N.A. (2004) -
Булахова, Н.А. (2004) -
Bulakhova, N.A. (2013) -
The snout vent length (SVL) in females of the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara Jacq. 1787) was revealed to depend significantly on its physiological condition. In the second half of pregnancy in all the investigated in dividuals (n=88; 63.0 ± 0.4, 54.6–71.1 mm), SVL was significantly greater (t = 19.9, p ≤ 0.001), than that in the individuals killed shortly after parturition (59.7 ± 0.4, 50.2–67.1 mm). The control measurement of 29 alive females showed that the SVL was reduced immediately after parturition. The absolute change of the SVL (ΔSVL) was, on the average, 3.3 ± 0.2 (0.3–7.4) mm, or 5.2 ± 0.3 (0.5–11.5)%. A probable cause of this re duction is a displacement of the cloacal fissure in pregnant Z. vivipara due to changes in the position of pelvic bones under the pressure of eggs filling the abdominal cavity. An adverse dependence of ΔSVL on SVL was found in females after parturition (rs = –0.32, p ≤ 0.005). Each egg in the second half of pregnancy leads to the increase of SVL in small sized and large sized females, on the average, by 0.7 and 0.4 mm, respectively. The results found showed that the results of measurements might be distorted in processing the data on mixed groups of individuals.
Булахова Н.А. (2013) -
Выявлено, что у самок живородящей ящерицы (Zootoca vivipara Jacq. 1787) длина туловища (L) существенно зависит от физиологического состояния. Во второй половине беременности у всех исследованных особей (n = 88; 63.0 ± 0.4, 54.671.1 мм) она была значимо выше (t = 19.9, p 0.001), чем у этих же особей, умерщвленных вскоре после родов (59.7 ± 0.4, 50.267.1 мм). Контрольное измерение 29 живых самок показало, что сокращение длины туловища происходит сразу после родов. Абсолютное изменение длины туловища (n = 88) составило в среднем 3.3 ± 0.2 (0.37.4) мм, или 5.2± 0.3 (0.511.5)%. Вероятный источник возникновения различий каудальное смещение положения клоакальной щели у беременных Z. vivipara из-за изменения угла наклона тазовых костей, вызванного давлением на них яиц, заполняющих брюшную полость. Выявлена отрицательная зависимость абсолютного изменения ( L) от длины родивших самок (rs = 0.32, p 0.005). Каждое яйцо во второй половине беременности приводит к увеличению длины туловища мелких самок в среднем на 0.7 мм, крупных самок на 0.4 мм. Возникающие различия существенны и свидетельствуют об опасности искажения результатов измерений и основанных на них коэффициентов и индексов при обработке смешанных групп особей.
Bulakhova, N.A. & Kuranova, V.N. & Saveliev, S.V. (2007) -
The average and maximum life intervals, the age of sexual maturity attaining, the age structure and peculiarities of growth are studied by the longitudinal thin sections of cortical bones with the help of polarized light in nine populations of sand (Lacerta agilis) and common (Zootoca vivipara) lizards of the south-east territories of Western Siberia. The influence of abiotic factors to the main demographical structure characteristics of both populations are shown.
Bulakhova, N.A. & Shamgunova, R.R. & Matkovskii, A.V. (2011) -
Four hibernation sites of the common lizard (Zootoca vivípara Jacq. 1787) were described in the northern and southern taiga of Western Siberia. The depth of their location (10-15 cm) was similar in the natural habitat (the peat soil of a felled area in a birch-pine forest with Ledum palustre and Cladonia and Cladina lichens) and in the anthropogenic habitat (the soil of gardens). In search of Z. vivipara hibernation sites in Western Siberia, an area of 0.2 ha where the lizard permanently inhabit nearby the city of Tomsk (56°30` N, 84°53` E) was thoroughly examined. However, no lizards were found in rotten trunks or grass sod and coverts (tree waste, wind fallen trees, bark pieces, decayed boards). The observations of lizards kept in an open-air enclosure showed a serious danger they face during wintering periods on the land surface (tree waste, moss), in the upper soil layer (2-4 CM) and in holes of small rodents: most of wintering lizards in our experimental enclosure were killed by rodents. Our results and published data evidence that hibernation sites of common lizards in Western Siberia are located mainly in the upper soil layer (10-15 CM), but not on the soil surface.
Bülbül, U. & Koc, H. & Orhan, Y. & Odabas, Y. & Kutrup, B. (2019) -
It is a fact that the amphibians and reptiles respond to unfavourable weather conditions by searching an underground refuge to survive during winter. The current literature has shown that some species of reptilians and amphibians may become active before their known end of hibernation periods, especially in lowland areas. In the present study, it has been detected that the changing weather conditions in a highland area in Gümüshane, Turkey can cause similar effects on Lacerta media, Bufo bufo and Rana macrocnemis that share the same habitats. One of the reasons of the early activities of some reptilian and amphibian species before their known end of hibernation periods may be the high sensitivity of these species to the changing temperature conditions. Effects of global warming on reptilians and amphibians obvious, and some members of these animals can even be active during winter. This conclusion brings into mind that L. media, B. bufo and R. macrocnemis can continue to be active at highland areas as long as air temperature values allow them.
Bundesamt für Naturschutz (2020) -
Bureau, L. (1893) -
Buresch, I. & Zonkow, J. (1933) -
Busack, S.D. & Maxson, L.R. (1987) -
Relationships among representatives of five genera of lacertid lizards from Iberia, Morocco, and South Africa were studied using quantitative micro-complement fixation analysis of serum albumin evolution. Using the albumin molecular clock to establish divergence times we suggest (1) South African Ichnotropis and North African Psammodromus diverged from the lineage representing Lacerta lepida-L. monticola during the Oligocene, (2) South African Pedioplanis and Heliobolus diverged from this lineage during the late Miocene, and (3) ancestral representatives of L. andreanszkyi, L. perspicillata and Podarcis hispanica diverged from lineages leading to L. monticola and L. lepida during the mid-Miocene. Radiation within the Palearctic Lacertidae has clearly been extensive, yet fewer than twenty percent of the species in this radiation have been examined biochemically. Until additional data can be gathered, the current classification of the Palearctic Lacertidae cannot be much improved and we recommend adherence to the taxonomy proposed by Arnold (1973).
Buschendorf, J. (1999) -
Buschinger, A. & Verbeek, B. (1970) -
Territorial behaviour of the viviparous lizard, La- certa vivipara Jacquin, was investigated in the field.
Each animal was tagged by implantation of a ra- dioactive grain of o.8 mm diameter and 2.5 mm length containing 0.25 mC 182Ta encased in pla- tinum.
The y-emission of 0,07-1,28 MeV enabled location of the lizards by a GM-detector at a distance of up to 2.5 m.
In lizards, which had been labelled for 3 months with 0,49 .mC 182Ta we could not find any damage affecting their behaviour.
Lacerta vivipara does not occupy a sharply defined territory. Males move more on warm days covering an area of more than 60 m in diameter, but in the evening they return to defined sleeping sites.
Bußmann, M. (1990) -
Bußmann, M. & Schlüpmann, M. (2006) -
Bußmann, M. & Schlüpmann, M. (2007) -
Cabela, A. & Grillitsch, H. & Happ, H. & Happ, F. & Koller, R. (1992) -
Cabela, A. & Grillitsch, H. & Tiedemann, F. (1997) -
Camerano, L. (1885) -
Camerano, L. & Lessona, M. (1885) -
Campos-Such, D. (2017) -
This paper analyses the literature published in the last 17 years regarding records of albinism, axanthism, erythrism, leucism, melanism, nigrism or piebaldism, among other chromatic anomalies in Iberian herps.Whereas hipomelanistic disorders showed to be more widespread, melanism cases had a high occurrence pattern in the northern side of the Iberian Peninsula.We suggest that thermal melanism could be an adaptive advantage for ectotherms. Notwithstanding this, we also discuss the possible negative effect of the color aberrations taking into account differences in pre-dation pressure.
Cantera, X. (2014) -
Capizzi, D. & Luiselli, L. & Vignoli, L. (2006) -
Capizzi, D. & Luiselli, L. & Vignoli, L. (2007) -
Flight initiation distance in relation to substratum type, sex, reproductive status and tail condition was studied in two lacertid lizards with contrasting habits: the ground-dwelling common lizard Zootoca vivipara and the rupicolous Horvath`s rock lizard Iberolacerta horvathi. These species were studied in sympatric populations in a mountain area in North-Eastern Italy, Tarvisio Forest. Mean escape distance was significantly higher in I. horvathi than in Z. vivipara. In both species there were significant differences between sexes, with males escaping at longer distances than females but there were no significant differences between adults and subadults. In both species there were no differences in escape distance of females in different reproductive states. In Z. vivipara specimens with broken tails escaped at a shorter distance than individuals with intact tails. Substratum type had a significant effect on escape distance in both species.
Capriglione, T. & Olmo, E. & Odierna, G. & Kupriyanova, L.A. (1994) -
Cytological and molecular evidence is provided to characterize the sex chromosomes of several species of Lacertidae. Observations on pachytene and lampbrush stages show that sex chromosomes have different condensation cycles and are only partially paired during meiosis. Bkm probe hybridization to Pst I-treated genomic DNA of Podarcis sicula and Lacerta vivipara shows the same pattern both in males and females. In situ hybridization of the same probe to Lacerta vivipara chromosomes shows no preferential localization of this DNA sequence. The results obtained clearly exclude the possible involvement of Bkm in sex-chromosome differentiation in the species investigated.
Capula, M. & Scalera, R. (1998) -
Carranza, S. (2010) -
In this talk I will present the recent advances in the systematics, biogeography and evolution of the family Lacertidae with especial emphasis on the tribe Lacertini. These hypotheses are based on very complete phylogenetic trees inferred using both mitochondrial and nuclear data. According to the results the Lacertini can be assigned to 19 monophyletic units, all of them diagnosable using morphology (mainly scalation, osteology and cytogenetics) and therefore rec- ognized as independent genera. Both mtDNA and nuclear data indicate that Teira and Scelarcis are sister taxa and recent results suggest a very close association between Dinarolacerta and Algyroides but for most of the other genera it is very dif cult to infer any robust phylogenetic re- lationship, despite using a lot of information, suggesting that speciation within the Lacertini was probably very sudden. The Lacertidae probably arose in the European area, with the Gallotiinae later reaching Northwest Africa and the Canary Islands, and the ancestor of the Eremiadini invad- ing Africa in the Miocene. The Lacertini spread through much of their present European range and diversi ed perhaps largely by repeated vicariance, producing the ancestors of the present mainly small-bodied genera. These genera then underwent often modest speciation, although in most of the cases the molecular phylogenies show that the real diversity of the different genera has been greatly underestimated and needs to be revised. The large-bodied lizards Timon and Lacerta and the small-bodied Podarcis and Zootoca spread more widely and Takydromus invaded more dis- tant areas like East Asia. Overall, European Lacertidae show a pattern of repeated spread, often accompanied by restriction of previous groups. The molecular data also shows that Atlantolacerta andreanskyi belongs in the Eremiadini and may occupy a basal position there. Its phylogenetic position may help to clarify how the Eremiadini colonized Africa.
Carretero, M.A. (2004) -
Lacertids are the dominant group of lizards throughout the Mediterranean Basin. Their role in food web transfer of matter and energy from arthropods and other small invertebrates to birds and mammals constitutes a major function within Mediterranean ecosystems. For many years, prey consumption by lacertids was thought to be almost indiscriminate, not much more than a byproduct of habitat use. However, increasing evidence does not support this passive view. Analyses of prey availability have revealed active prey selection/avoidance in several species. Others show an internal tendency (i.e., historical constraints) to consume specific animal items (ants, clumped prey) or plant matter (seeds, nectar, pollen, leaves). Behavioural experiments showed that lacertids not only identify different prey types by both visual and chemical cues but also modify their feeding behaviour integrating past experiences. Furthermore, size, sex, reproductive state, body condition, tail loss and probably other lizard features are relevant for feeding ecology. However, less attention has been devoted to abiotic factors such as temperature and humidity. More experimental studies of the influences of competitors, predators and parasites on diet are needed. Even though it is controversial, optimal foraging theory provides a conceptual background for future studies. The evolutionary history of the various lacertid lineages, which constrains their morphology and physiology and eventually produces exaptative traits, is to be considered as well. Finally, methodology in field sampling, lab work and statistical analysis needs to be developed. Recommendations are given as to when and where to sample, which compartment should be analysed, which is the appropriate sample size, how to assess trophic availability, which statistical descriptors should be used and how they should be compared.
Carretero, M.A. & Martínez-Solano, Í. & Ayllón, E. & Llorente, G. (2018) -
Carretero, M.A. & Roig, J.M. & Llorente, G.A. (1996) -
Carretero, M.A. & Roig, J.M. & Llorente, G.A. (1998) -
Carretero, M.A. & Roig, J.M. & Llorente, G.A. (2005) -
The intraspecific variation of preferred temperatures (Tp) was analysed in an oviparous population of Lacerta vivipara and compared with viviparous populations. Lizards collected in central Pyrenees were exposed to a thermal gradient and Tp was measured at four time intervals. Tp was strongly dependent on lizard condition (males > non-pregnant females > pregnant females = immatures) and more weakly with time of day (early morning > mid-day). Individual females increased their Tp after egg-laying. Class-by-class comparisons did not reveal substantial differences with viviparous populations as expected for the thermal rigidity hypothesis. Nevertheless, on a short time scale, Tp should be interpreted as a compromise between different selective pressures including not only thermal environment but also reproductive condition and energy allocation.
Carretero, M.A. & Roig, J.M. & Sillero, N. & Ribeiro, R. (2006) -
Cassol, M. & Romanazzi, E. & Cerbo, A.R. di & Vettorazzo, E. (2016) -
Cassol, M. & Romanazzi, E. & Cerbo, A.R. di & Vettorazzo, E. (2017) -
Castroviejo, J. Castroviejo, S. & Salvador, A. (1970) -
Cavin, L. (1993) -
Čeirāns, A. (2002) -
Im Verlaufe der Inventur der Herpetofauna von zwei Nationalparks in Lettland (Kemeri 1994-1997) und Gauja (1998-2000) wurden Materialen über die Waldlebensräume der Kriechtiere gesammelt. Die Informationen über die Zusammensetzung und das Alter der von Kriechtieren besiedelten Gehölzbestände stammen aus der Datenbank der Staatlichen Forstbetriebe. Anguis fragilis bevorzugte Baumbestände, in denen Kiefern dominieren. Die Art war in den Feuchtwäldern nicht anzutreffen. Zootoca vivipara bevorzugte Baumbestände, in denen Kiefern dominieren und vermied Laubwald. In Z. vivipara Biotopen bestand eine negative Korrelation zwischen der relativen Häufigkeit der Fichte und dem Alter der Bäume. Die Art besiedelte die Baumbestände, in denen Fichtenbäume dominierten, die weniger als 40 Jahre alt waren, vermied aber ältere Baumbestände sofern in ihnen die Fichte dominierte. Natrix natrix bevorzugte keine der Baumarten in den Waldbiotopen im Nationalpark von Kemeri. Die im Nationalpark von Gauja in Bezug auf diese Art eingeholten Daten waren für eine Analyse nicht ausreichend. Es wurde eine positive Korrelation zwischen der relativen Häufigkeit von Laubbäumen und ihrem Alter an von N. natrix besiedelten Orten beobachtet. Bei allen drei Kriechtierarten wurden saisonale Unterschiede in der Biotopnutzung beobachtet. Bei A: fragilis und Z. vivipara wurden relativ schwache aber statistische signifikante Zusammenhänge bezüglich ihrer Biotoppräferenzen im Jahreslauf gefunden: In im Frühjahr, Spätsommer und zu Herbstbeginn aufgesuchten Habitaten war das vermehrte Auftreten der Kiefer typisch, während Fichte und Laubbäume in den Sommerlebensräumen überwogen.
An inventory of the herpetofauna of the Gauja National Park, located in the north-cen- tral part of Latvia, was carried out in 1999-2000. Its objectives were to determine species composition, status, and habitat preferences. The main attention was focussed on reptiles. Data were collected along transects located throughout the territory of the Park. The total length of transects was 166.2 km, and numerous separate observations of various species were also recorded. Common and widespread species were Lacerta vivipara, Bufo bufo, Rana temporaria, and Rana synklepton esculenta. Anguis fragilis was found mostly in a dry pine, pine-spruce forest on the terrace of the ancient valley of Gauja River. A large population of Natrix natrix was found in the southern part of the Park in deciduous and coniferous forests. A few populations of Lacerta agilis were found in dry pine forests, and on the banks of the Gauja River. Rana arvalia was a rare species, more frequently found in high moors. There were also several records of Triturus crista- tus and T. vulgaris in the Gauja National Park. The required conservation activities are discussed.
Čeirāns, A. (2004) -
n zwei Nationalparks in Lettland (im Nationalpark von Kemeri 1994-1997 und im Nationalpark von Gauja 1998-2000) wurden Daten über Waldlebensräume von Reptilien gesammelt. Die Klassifikation der Waldlebensräume erfolgte auf Grundlage der Typologie lettischer Wälder, die auf Standorteigenschaften basiert. Berechnet wurden für jeden Waldtyp die Abweichungen von den erwarteten Werten der Reptiliennachweise sowie die Nischenbreite und –überlappung der Reptilienlebensräume. Drei Kriechtierarten – Anguis fragilis LINNAEUS, 1758, Zootoca vivipara (JACQUIN, 1787) und Natrix natrix (LINNAEUS, 1758) – kamen in den Waldlebensräumen regelmäßig vor. Anguis fragilis wurde ausschließlich in trockenen und entwässerten Wäldern beobachtet, Z. vivipara und Natrix natrix besiedelten die unterschiedlichsten Waldtypen. Für die genannten Arten werden die Präferenzen gegenüber bestimmten Waldtypen und das Ausmaß der Überlappung ihrer Lebensräume diskutiert.
Čeirāns, A. (2006) -
Čeirāns, A. (2007) -
Vegetation characteristics for reptile microhabitats were described in circular plots using modified Braun–Blanquet method. The total number of all plots was 280, and they covered the whole territory of Latvia. Microhabitat use among reptile species was examined using Discriminant Function Analysis. The first dicriminant function indicated gradient from mesic to xeric sites, and the second—from disturbed sites to intact dry pine forest sites. Group centroids showed good separation among species. Lacerta agilis preferred xeric sites, and, at the other end of the gradient, both snake species preferred mesic sites with tall herb layer and shrubs. Anguis fragilis often was associated with relatively intact pine forest, while other reptiles—with mainly disturbed sites with grass cover. Important vegetation characteristics for reptile microhabitats are given in an appendix.
Čeirāns, A. (2012) -
Čeirāns, A. & Nikolajeva, L. (2017) -
Diet preferences of the smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) being still controversial, we studied the overlap between its habitat and that of its potential reptilian prey species using the artificial refuge (ATR) method. The discriminant function analysis revealed that part of the smooth snake’s habitat niche is unused by one of its prey species – Zootoca vivipara. The smooth snake was recorded more often in places with high density of individuals of another lizard species – Anguis fragilis. Occasional data on snake diets supported the assumption that the latter species is a very important food item for the smooth snake in the study area. Our study estimated the minimum number of times that a site must be visited to infer absence of a particular species, which was 12 for Anguis fragilis, 14 for Coronella austriaca, and 19 for Natrix natrix. Moreover, the study revealed that ATRs should be placed and kept at a site for the whole vegetation season. In the intact bog habitat, the smooth snake was recorded only within a 40 m wide peripheral belt, Anguis fragilis within an 80 m wide belt, and Zootoca vivipara within a 120 m wide peripheral belt. In the drained bog, Anguis fragilis inhabited a broad spectrum of habitat types ranging from tall closed forest to low open stands. All other species inhabited stands with the tree cover percentage smaller than 30–50%. Coronella austriaca and Vipera berus preferred low stands (average height < 5m), while Zootoca vivipara and Natrix did not show any preferences for tree stand height. Our study indicates that reptiles benefit from lowered ground water levels and more stable water regime of a degraded bog.
Cernow, S.A. (1933) -
Чернов С.А. (1933) -
Chamaillé-Jammes, S. (2002) -
Chamaillé-Jammes, S. & Massot, M. & Aragón, P. & Clobert, J. (2005) -
Recent global warming threatens many species and has already caused population- and species-level extinctions. In particular, high risks of extinction are expected for isolated populations of species with low dispersal abilities. These predictions rely on widely used ‘climatic envelope’ models, while individual responses, the ultimate driver of a species response to climate change, have been most often neglected. Here, we report on some changes in life-history traits of a dispersal-limited reptile species (a poorly studied taxa) living in isolated populations. Using long-term data on common lizards collected in southern France, we show that individual body size dramatically increased in all the four populations studied over the past 18 years. This increase in body size in all age classes appeared related to a concomitant increase in temperature experienced during the first month of life (August). Daily maximum temperature in August increased by 2.2 1C and yearling snout-vent-length increased by about 28%. As a result, adult female body size increased markedly, and, as fecundity is strongly dependent on female body size, clutch size and total reproductive output also increased. For one population where capture–recapture data were available, adult survival was positively related to May temperature. All fitness components investigated therefore responded positively to the increase in temperature, such that it might be concluded that the common lizard has been advantaged by the shift in temperature.We contrast these short-term results with the long-term habitat-based prediction that these populations located close to mountain tops on the southern margin of the species range should be unable to cope with the alteration of their habitat. To achieve a better prediction of a species persistence, one will probably need to combine both habitat and individual-based approaches.
Charvát, Z. & Král, B. (1969) -
Chenuil, C. (1991) -
Chetanov, N.A. & Eplanova, G.V. (2011) -
We carried out total statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral traits (number of femoral pores - P.f. and number of supralabial scales - Lab.) for two populations of Zootoca vivipara from Perm region. For integral estimation of FA value, using algorithm of convolution, statistically significant differences between studied populations were found in male`s sample and in the united sample of males and females. We found that there is no statistically significant difference (using χ2 criteria) in occurrence frequency between two studied populations.
Chevalier, M. (1969) -
Chevalier, M. & Dufaure, J.-P. & Lecher, P. (1979) -
The karyotypes of 4 european species of Lacertidae were determined in hepatic tissue cultures. The chromosomal formula typical of the Lacertidae (2n = 36M + 2 m) was found in L. muralis, L. sicula campestris and L. viridis; no morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes were identified in these 3 species. A population of L. vivipara caught in the Massif Central (France) shows the following diploid number: 2 n ~ ? = 3 2 A + Z a Z~ W, 2 n d = 3 2 A + Z ~ Z~ Z2Z2. The existence of the submetacentric W in the female karyotype can be explained by centric fusion between two non homologous telocentric chromosomes. It is possible that only some populations show this rearrangement. The finding of two types of heterogamety, XY and ZW, in the same Order contributes to our knowledge of the evolution of sex chromosomes among Vertebrates.
Cheylan, M. (1972) -
Clark, R. (1994) -
Clasen, A. (2001) -
Clerx, P.M.J. & Broers, J.L.V. (1983) -
During summer 1981 an ecological study was made on a highland population of Lacerta vivipara in Serfaus (Tirol, Austria) at an altitude of 2000 m. The main aim of this investigation was the study of the reproduction cycle during the relatively short season of activity. When possible comparisons were made with corresponding data of lowland populations in the Netherlands.
Clobert, J. (2012) -
Clobert, J. (2017) -
Clobert, J. & Massot, M. & Galliard, J.-F. le (2012) -
Clobert, J. & Massot, M. & Lecomte, J. & Sorci, G. & Fraipont, M. de & Barbault, R. (1994) -
Clobert, J. & Massot, M. & Léna, J.-P. & Fraipont, M. de (1997) -
Clobert, J. & Massot, M. & Pilorge, T. & Lecomte, J. (1990) -
Clobert, J. & Oppliger, A. & Sorci, G. & Ernande, B. & Swallow, J.G. & Garland, T.J. (2000) -
1. Considerable within-population variability of locomotor performance traits has been shown to exist in several species of squamate reptiles. In general, high values for speed and endurance are thought to have positive effects on the ability to capture prey, escape from predators, compete with conspecifics and acquire mates. On the other hand, variation in performance might trade-off with other components of fitness such that the net effect on Darwinian fitness is unpredictable.
2. Gravid females of the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) were captured and several phenotypic traits of their offspring measured immediately following birth. These were endurance, body length and body mass. Offspring were marked for individual identi- fication, released into the field, and correlations between the phenotypic traits and their subsequent growth, activity and survival rate over the next months were then tested for. Parasitism by hematozoa was monitored and predation risk by tail losses estimated. 3. It was found that individuals with a low endurance at birth tended to have reduced activity and growth rate, and higher parasite load; on the positive side, however, they experienced lower predation risk as assessed by tail losses. Conversely, individuals with a high endurance at birth had high activity and growth rates, low parasite load, but higher incidence of broken tails. Finally, endurance at birth was not correlated with survivor- ship up to the age of sexual maturity. Thus, individuals with varying locomotor endur- ance seem to exhibit behaviours that may result in the same level of Darwinian fitness. 4. The possibility that our results reveal a trade-off between the risk of becoming infected with parasites when lizards are less active (which is related to having lower endurance) vs the risk of being predated when the lizards are more active (higher endurance) is discussed.
Cocteau, T. (1835) -
Cogălniceanu, D. & Rozylowicz, L. & Székely, P. & Samoilă, C. & Stănescu, F. & Tudor, M. & Székely, D. & Iosif, R. (2013) -
e reptile fauna of Romania comprises 23 species, out of which 12 species reach here the limit of their geographic range. We compiled and updated a national database of the reptile species occurrences from a variety of sources including our own eld surveys, personal communication from specialists, museum collections and the scienti c literature. e occurrence records were georeferenced and stored in a geoda- tabase for additional analysis of their spatial patterns. e spatial analysis revealed a biased sampling e ort concentrated in various protected areas, and de cient in the vast agricultural areas of the southern part of Romania. e patterns of species richness showed a higher number of species in the warmer and drier regions, and a relatively low number of species in the rest of the country. Our database provides a starting point for further analyses, and represents a reliable tool for drafting conservation plans.
Collin de Plancy, V. (1878) -
Collin, J.-P. & Meiniel, A. (1973) -
Experiments involving injection of 3H-5-hydroxytryptophan (3H-5-HTP) and 3H-5-hydroxytryptamine (3H-5-HT), followed by qualitative and quantitative radioautographic studies of the region of the pineal organ in Lacerta vivipara (J.) show:
Inhibition of 5-HT synthesis at the decarboxylation step with Ro 4-4602 or pretreatment with reserpine reduce significantly the labelling of the sensory epithelium of the pineal organ, and change the cell labelling pattern. In contrast with the animals treated only with 3H-5-HTP, those treated with either of these drugs and 3H-5-HTP show nonspecific radioautographic reactions.
The cellular distribution of monoamine oxidase activity (MAO), in the pineal organ was histochemically studied in normal and in nialamide or iproniazide treated animals. Lizards treated with an IMAO (inhibitor of MAO) and 3H-5-HTP show highly significant increases in radioactivity in the regions of the secretory granules (500–3400 Å in diameter) of the secretory rudimentary photoreceptor cells (SRP).
From the study of normal and MAO inhibited animals after an injection of 3H-5-HT, it is concluded that this indolamine may not be easily utilized in Lacerta as a precursor of melatonin and other possible active indoles.
As a result of this study and other cytophysiological and biochemical investigations on the pineal of lacertilians, a partially hypothetical diagrammatic representation of the SRP cells is presented, showing the possible sites of the metabolism of indolamines in the pineal of Lacerta.
The sequence of incorporation and utilization of 3H-5-hydroxytryptophan (3H-5-HTP) has been examined in the pineal organ of adult lizard (Lacerta vivipara J.).
Each animal was given 3H-5-HTP in the afternoon (about 15.00 h in July, T°=21–28°C). The lizards were sacrificed 2, 10, 15, 21, 30 minutes, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 days after administration.
The cellular distribution of radioactivity was studied by qualitative and quantitative radioautography. The radioautographs show selective labelling, appearing in the SRP (secretory rudimentary photoreceptors) after 2–10 minutes. The labelling reaches a maximum over the SRP within 5 hours and subsequently disappears between 2 and 3 days. These radioautographic reactions are always most concentrated in the regions of proteinaceous secretory granules (500–3400 Å) originating from the Golgi complex. The other components of the SRP account only for a minor fraction of the labelling. Supporting and nervous (sensory and probably noradrenergic) cells of the pineal organ, as well as neighbouring brain structures do not retain significantly the radioactive compounds.
These results, correlated with previous cytophysiological and biochemical studies, are consistant with an important role of SRP in the biosynthesis and storage of serotonin. Conclusions concerning the biosynthesis and metabolism of indolamines are presented in a subsequent paper where the incorporation of 3H-5-HTP is studied under experimental conditions. The turnover of indolamines seems to be slower in Lacerta than in mammals.
Companyo, L. (1863) -
Constanzo, J.P. & Grenot, C. & Lee, R.E. (1995) -
The European common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) is widely distributed throughout Eurasia and is one of the few Palaearctic reptiles occurring above the Arctic Circle. We investigated the cold-hardiness of L. vivipara from France which routinely encounter sub-zero temperatures within their shallow hibernation burrows. In the laboratory, cold-acclimated lizards exposed to subfreezing temperatures as low as -3.5 degrees C could remain unfrozen (supercooled) for at least 3 weeks so long as their microenvironment was dry. In contrast, specimens cooled in contact with ambient ice crystals began to freeze within several hours. However, such susceptibility to inoculative freezing was not necessarily deleterious since L. vivipara readily tolerated the freezing of its tissues, with body surface temperatures as low as -3.0 degrees C during trials lasting up to 3 days. Freezing survival was promoted by relatively low post-nucleation cooling rates (< or = 0.1 degrees C.h-1) and apparently was associated with an accumulation of the putative cryoprotectant, glucose. The cold-hardiness strategy of L. vivipara may depend on both supercooling and freeze tolerance capacities, since this combination would afford the greatest likelihood of surviving winter in its dynamic thermal and hydric microenvironment.
Cooper Jr., W.E. & Pyron, A. & Garland, T. jr. (2014) -
One of Darwin`s most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator–prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.
Copplestone, D. & Koulikov, A.O. & Semenov, D.V. (2005) -
Results of radionuclide analysis in common reptiles species collected on two radioactive contaminated territories in Russia are presented. It is shown that they adequately accumulate radioactive pollutants including trace ones and so could be effectively used for biomonitoring objectives.
Cornelissen, T.J.P. (1948) -
Cornetti, L. (2014) -
Global change is heavily affecting Alpine ecosystems in term of both climate warming and anthropization and its effects have been already demonstrated for many different taxa. However, understanding the genetic consequences on wild species caused by environmental modifications is complicated. In this thesis, I analyzed the genetic variation pattern in two vertebrate species whose distribution and persistence across the Italian Alps could be, or already have been, affected by changing climatic conditions and human pressures for assessing their conservation status. I collected semi-invasive samples of the yellow-bellied toad Bombina variegata and of the common lizard Zootoca vivipara in the central-eastern part of Alpine chain for performing molecular analyses and subsequent statistical inferences. Different types of genetic data were used for different aims, such as mitochondrial and nuclear sequences for confirming the ESU status of a threatened lineage, microsatellite markers for evaluating genetic variability and demographic histories of wild populations or genomic SNPs for studying a major evolutionary phenotypic transition. The analyses suggested that some of the studied populations of both species suffer from reduced genetic variability and low effective population size, even if this pattern is not directly ascribable to recent anthopogenic and climatic changes. In the light of these results, however, specific conservation measure should be evaluated for these species, which are considered of least concern by the IUCN, in particular considering the predicted increase of temperature and expected modifications for their most suitable habitats.
Cornetti, L. & Belluardo, F. & Ghielmi, S. & Ficetola, G.F. & Bertorelle, G. & Vernesi, C. & Mauffe, H.C. (2015) -
Contact zones between two evolutionary lineages are often useful for understanding the process of speciation because the observed genetic pattern reflects the history of differentiation. The Eurasian lacertid lizard Zootoca vivipara is a potentially interesting model for studying the role of reproductive mode in the speciation of squamate reptiles because it has both oviparous (Zootoca vivipara carniolica) and viviparous (Zootoca vivipara vivipara) populations that have recently been shown to be genetically distinct. We studied a newly-discovered syntopic area of these two Zootoca subspecies in the central Italian Alps using genetic markers to investigate the level of introgression between them. Patterns of genetic differentiation in a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytb gene and a set of nuclear microsatellites show that the speciation process is complete in this area, with no evidence of recent introgression. Phylogenetic and genotypic divergence suggests that the two subspecies have experienced long independent evolutionary histories, during which genetic and phenotypic differences evolved. The possible roles of biogeography, reproductive mode, and cytogenetic differentiation in this speciation process are discussed.
Cornetti, L. & Benazzo, A. & Bruford, M.W. & Bertorelle, G. & Vernesi, C. (2012) -
The lizard Zootoca vivipara is one on the few example in Nature which shows, within the same species, populations with different reproductive modalities. Oviparous populations live in the southern part of its distributional range (the newly discovered Z.v.carniolica in Eastern-Italian Alps and Z.v.louislantzi in the Pyrenees), while viviparous subspecies (e.g. Z.v.vivipara and Z.v.sachalinensis) are widely distributed from British Isles and central France to Scandinavia and north-eastern Asia. This species is, therefore, particularly well suited for studying the evolutionary shift in reproductive mode.
Cornetti, L. & Benazzo, A. & Panziera, A. & Bruford, M. & Bertorelle, G. & Vernesi, C. (2013) -
Some squamate reptile species provide a unique model system for gaining crucial information about the evolutionary transition from oviparity to viviparity in vertebrates. The lizard Zootoca vivipara is one of the few species with distinct reproductive modalities in different subspecies; in particular, Z. v. carniolica is an egg-laying lizard while Z. v. vivipara is a live-bearing one; they both live in the Eastern Italian Alps, sometimes in sintopy. This provides an interesting natural setting for studying the evolutionary shift in reproductive mode. Some populations were analysed using classical genetic markers (mitochondrial, nuclear DNA sequences and autosomal microsatellites). The mtDNA results indicated a marked divergence between the two subspecies (around 5% at the cytochrome B), as well as nuclear microsatellites. Possible existence of hybrid individuals in Carnic Alps, as recently reported by morphological evidences, has boosted the interest on this topic. RAD-tag sequencing, a next-generation sequencing technique that allows simultaneously discovering and analyzing hundreds of thousands of SNPs, was then applied to Zootoca vivipara subspecies in order to identify mutations correlated with the reproductive modality and with related adaptive traits.
Cornetti, L. & Ficetola, G.F. & Hoban, S. & Vernesi, C. (2015) -
Identification of cryptic species is an essential aim for conservation biologists to avoid premature extinctions of ‘unrecognized’ species. Integrating different types of data can undoubtedly aid in resolving the issue of species delimitation. We studied here two lineages of the common lizard Zootoca vivipara that display different reproductive mode (the viviparous Z. v. vivipara and the oviparous Z. v. carniolica) and that overlap their distributional ranges in the European Alps. With the purpose of delimiting species’ boundaries, we analyzed their ecological, genetic and natural history features. More than 300 samples were collected and analyzed at cytochrome b and 11 microsatellites loci for investigating genetic variation, population structure, individual relatedness and evolutionary histories of the two lineages. Additionally, we compared their ecological niches using eight ecological variables. Genetic data showed contrasting patterns of genetic structure between the two lineages, different demographic dynamics and no hybridization events. Also strong ecological differences (such as temperature) emerged between the two lineages, and niche overlap was limited. Taken together, these results indicate that Z. v. vivipara and Z. v. carniolica should be recognized as two separate species, and particular conservation consideration should be given to the oviparous lineage that tends to live in areas threatened by increasing impact of human activities. However, recent and rapid climate warming might determine an increasing risk for the persistence of the viviparous lineage, being adapted to cold environments.
Cornetti, L. & Girardi, M. & Ghielmi, S. & Vernesi, C. (2018) -
Genetic variability, one of the main factors that guarantees species persistence, and species’ conservation status are generally evaluated with indices calculated at the present time. Natural history collections might help compare historical and current genetic diversity so to identify major trends. Here we analysed museum specimens of the lizard Zootoca vivipara carniolica, with a specific and stringent protocol for degraded DNA, in order to contrast its past and current genetic variability, using fragments of one mitochondrial DNA gene. Part of the distributional range of Z. v. carniolica (Po Plain, Italy), heavily impacted by human activities, was investigated. We found two previously unknown haplotypes in populations that are extinct today, suggesting the loss of these haplotypes and thus an overall shrinking of genetic variability. We argue that these results, together with the increasing threats posed by climate and land use changes, suggest that specific conservation measures for the persistence of Z. v. carniolica in Northern Italian lowlands have to be considered.
Cornetti, L. & Griffith, O.W. & Panziera, A. & Whittington, C.M. & Thompson, M.B. & Vernesi, C. & Bertorelle, G. (2017) -
Viviparity has evolved from oviparity at least 150 independent times in vertebrates. More than 80% of these transitions have occurred in squamate reptiles, where both reproductive modes are rarely seen in different populations of the same species. This condition (bimodal reproduction) is ideal for studying the physiological and morphological changes underpinning the evolution of reproductive mode, and their genetic determinants. Here we analysed the genomes of Zootoca vivipara populations with either oviparous or viviparous reproduction using a RAD sequencing approach. No signature of interbreeding between oviparous and viviparous individuals was found. We conservatively identified 22 annotated coding sequences in genes potentially associated with parity mode differences. Six of these genes are transcription regulators that are also expressed in reproductive tissues of mammals and reptiles, suggesting that changes in gene expression are important for the evolution of viviparity. Using a more inclusive approach based on contigs mapping in either coding or non-coding regions, 45 genes were identified. Twelve of these candidate genes are transcription regulators and four encode protease enzymes. We propose that the evolution of proteases may support morphological changes to the uterus during pregnancy. This study provides the foundation for further experimental studies of the genetic basis of parity mode in Z. vivipara.
Cornetti, L. & Menegon, M. & Giovine, G. & Heulin, B. & Vernesi, C. (2014) -
The European common lizard Zootoca vivipara exhibits reproductive bimodality, with populations being either viviparous or oviparous. In the central-eastern Italian Alps oviparous populations (Z. v. carniolica) and viviparous populations (Z. v. vivipara) partly overlap geographically. Studying the evolutionary relationship between these taxa presents an interesting opportunity to gain insight into the evolution of this trait. We aim to: i) test whether Z. v. carniolica, which is endangered, constitutes an ESU (Evolutionary Significant Unity); ii) infer mtDNA divergence time between the Z. v. carniolica clade and all the other Z. vivipara subspecies with the aid of an external calibration point; and iii) describe the phylogeographical and demographic scenarios in the area. To do so we sequenced about 200 individuals for mitochondrial variation; 64 of them were also analysed for three nuclear genes. Furthermore, we analysed the same nuclear markers in 17 individuals from the other oviparous subspecies Z. v. louislantzi and 11 individuals of Z. v. vivipara from widespread geographical origins. The mtDNA and nDNA loci that we examined supported the monophyly of Z. v. carniolica. The mtDNA-based estimate of divergence time between Z. v. carniolica and all the other subspecies indicated a separation at 4.5 Mya (95% CI 6.1–2.6), with about 5% of sequence divergence. Considering that Z. v. carniolica harbours higher genetic diversity, while Z. v. vivipara from central-eastern Alps shows a signature of recent population and spatial expansion, we argue that Z. v. carniolica represents a distinct evolutionary unit, with a presumably long-term evolutionary history of separation. Z. v. carniolica populations, occurring at higher latitudes and altitudes than insofar supposed, live in peat bogs, a seriously threatened habitat: taking into account also its evolutionary distinctness, specific conservation measures should be considered.
Cortés, J.A. (1988) -
Corti, C. & Lo Cascio, P. (2002) -
Cote, J. (2003) -
Cote, J. & Boudsocq, S. & Clobert, J. (2007) -
Socially acquired information is widespread in the animal kingdom. Many individuals make behavioral decisions based on such social information. In particular, individuals may decide to leave or select their habitat based on social information. Few studies have investigated the role of density-related information, a potential social cue about habitat quality in dispersal. Here, we tested for the possibility that the phenotype of intruder common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) may inadvertently carry information about their natal population density. We found that such information use is likely. The behavior of focal lizard was influenced by the natal population density of the intruder it was interacting with. This suggests that individuals may use the behavior of others to acquire appropriate information about surroundings and to base spatial decisions on this information. Density-related information may then affect individual movement decisions and thus metapopulation dynamics.
Cote, J. & Clobert, J. (2007) -
Animal personalities are common across taxa and have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such consistent individual differences correlate with important life-history traits such as dispersal. Indeed, some environmental conditions are supposed to determine dispersers with a specific personality. For example, an increased density should promote the departure of individuals with less social tolerance. Therefore, we hypothesized that dispersers from high-density populations should primarily be asocial individuals, whereas dispersers from low-density populations should be social individuals. In the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara), we measured attraction towards the odour of conspecifics on juveniles at birth as a metric of social tolerance. We then released these juveniles into populations of different densities and measured dispersal and settlement behaviours with regard to social tolerance. One year later, we again measured the social tolerance of surviving individuals. The social tolerance is constant across time and strongly reflects the individual`s dispersal and settlement patterns with respect to population density. These results strongly suggest that social personalities exist and influence dispersal decisions. Further studies will help to elucidate the proximate and ultimate determinants of social personalities.
Cote, J. & Clobert, J. (2010) -
Leaving a population without having information about the surrounding areas is highly risky. Candidates for dispersal may reduce these risks by making decisions based on the level of connectivity between patches, e.g., through immigrants. The benefits of information acquisition may vary within a population according to the dispersal cause and the phenotype of the candidate disperser. For instance, kin-based dispersers should be prepared to accept higher dispersal cost than individuals leaving for competition with congeners, and individuals of better condition should better deal with the costs of dispersing. We investigated whether the use of information obtained from immigrants depended on the reason for dispersal and the phenotype of individuals in common lizards (Lacerta vivipara). Dispersal decisions with respect to connection status depended on the cause of dispersal and on body mass. When intraspecific competition was the driving force behind dispersal, the information carried by immigrants allowed candidate dispersers to decrease uncertainty about the success of dispersal. Therefore, larger individuals dispersed when connectivity was low, whereas smaller individuals dispersed when connectivity was high. When kin competition dominated, dispersers did not adjust their dispersal decisions on the basis of information about the existence of surrounding populations, and larger individuals dispersed whatever the connectivity. These results provide support for the hypothesis that kin competition is one of the factors driving colonization.
Cote, J. & Clobert, J. (2012) -
Cote, J. & Clobert, J. & Fitze, P.S. (2007) -
Colonization is the crucial process underlying range expansions, biological invasions, and metapopulation dynamics. Which individuals leave their natal population to colonize empty habitats is a crucial question and is presently unresolved. Dispersal is the first step in colonization. However, not all dispersing individuals are necessarily good colonizers. Indeed, in some species, the phenotype of dispersers differs depending on the selective pressures that induce dispersal. In particular, kin-based interactions, a factor driving social evolution, should induce different social response profiles in nondispersing and dispersing individuals. Kin competition (defined here as between the mother and offspring) has been proven to produce dispersers with a particular phenotype that may enhance their colonizing ability. By using the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara), we conducted a multipopulation experiment to study the effect of kin competition on dispersal and colonization success. We manipulated mother–offspring interactions, which are the most important component of kin competition in the studied species, at the family and population levels and measured the consequences on colonization success. We demonstrate that mother–offspring competition at the population level significantly influences colonization success. Increased competition at the population level enhanced the colonization rate of the largest juveniles as well as the growth and survival of the colonizers. Based on these results, we calculated that kin-induced colonization halves the extinction probability of a newly initiated population. Because interactions between relatives are likely to affect the ability of a species to track habitat modifications, kin-based dispersal should be considered in the study of invasion dynamics and metapopulation functioning.
Cote, J. & Clobert, J. & Meylan, S. & Fitze, P.S. (2006) -
Corticosterone is an important hormone of the stress response that regulates physiological processes and modifies animal behavior. While it positively acts on locomotor activity, it may negatively affect reproduction and social activity. This suggests that corticosterone may promote behaviors that increase survival at the cost of reproduction. In this study, we experimentally investigate the link between corticosterone levels and survival in adult common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) by comparing corticosterone-treated with placebo-treated lizards. We experimentally show that corticosterone enhances energy expenditure, daily activity, food intake, and it modifies the behavioral time budget. Enhanced appetite of corticosterone-treated individuals compensated for increased energy expenditure and corticosteronetreated males showed increased survival. This suggests that corticosterone may promote behaviors that reduce stress and it shows that corticosterone per se does not reduce but directly or indirectly increases longer-term survival. This suggests that the production of corticosterone as a response to a stressor may be an adaptive mechanism that even controls survival.
Cote, J. & Clobert, J. & Poloni, L.M. & Maussy, C. & Meylan, S. (2010) -
Stressful events typically induce glucocorticoid production that suppresses unnecessary physiological and behavioural functions. The glucocorticoid production also temporally activates alternative behavioural and physiological pathways. These responses are generally adaptive changes to avoid the negative effects of stressors. However, under low food availability, these behavioural and physiological modifications might lead to energetic costs. We therefore predict that these responses should not be activated when there are energetic constraints (e.g., low food availability). We experimentally tested whether food deprivation modifies corticosterone-induced behavioural and physiological responses in captive male common lizards. We measured corticosterone-induced responses in terms of body mass, metabolic rate, activity level and basking behaviour. We found that corticosterone-induced various behavioural and physiological responses which were dependent on food availability. Well-fed lizards treated with corticosterone were active earlier, and increased their basking behaviour. These behavioural modifications did not occur in food-deprived lizards. This inactivation of stress-related behavioural changes probably allows the lizard to save energy.
Cote, J. & Galliard, J.-F. le & Rossi, J.-M. & Fitze, P.S. (2008) -
Colouration may either reflect a discrete polymorphism potentially related to life-history strategies, a continuous signal related to individual quality or a combination of both. Recently, Vercken et al. [J. Evol. Biol. (2007) 221] proposed three discrete ventral colour morphs in female common lizards, Lacerta vivipara, and suggested that they reflect alternative reproductive strategies. Here, we provide a quantitative assessment of the phenotypic distribution and determinants of the proposed colour polymorphism. Based on reflectance spectra, we found no evidence for three distinct visual colour classes, but observed continuous variation in colour from pale yellow to orange. Based on a 2-year experiment, we also provide evidence for reversible colour plasticity in response to a manipulation of the adult population sex ratio; yet, a significant portion of the colour variation was invariant throughout an adult female’s life. Our results are thus in agreement with continuous colour variation in adults determined by environmental factors and potentially also by genetic factors.
Cote, J. & J. Clobert (2007) -
´Should I stay or should I go?`is a fundamental question facing any candidate foremigration, as emigrating without outside information has major costs. Most studies onthis topic have concentrated on risk-reducing strategies (e.g. exploration) developed afterleaving the natal habitat. The idea that information might be acquired before leaving hasnot been investigated. Immigrants carrying information about their origins could providesuch information to potential emigrants in their initial habitat. We manipulated thedensity of common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) populations, to investigate whetherimmigrants originating from these populations transmitted such information to thepopulation they joined. Emigration of the residents of this new population clearlydepended on the origin of the immigrant. Immigrants are therefore a source ofinformation, in this case about surrounding population densities, and may have a majoreffect on dispersal and species persistence in a fragmented habitat.
Cote, J. & Meylan, S. & Clobert, J. & Voituron, Y. (2010) -
Environmental factors including stressors, health status and social context significantly affect carotenoid-based coloration. For instance, stressors may induce the diversion of carotenoids from pigmentation pathways, potentially explaining why stressed animals often exhibit reduced coloration. However, we recently showed that high blood corticosterone concentrations, which are part of the physiological stress response, are associated with increased redness of the belly in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara). This result clearly contrasts with the findings of many studies of carotenoid-based coloration because corticosterone is believed to increase oxidative stress. Here, we examined whether these positive effects are influenced by differences in food availability. We tested the effect of high corticosterone levels on carotenoid-based coloration, antioxidant enzyme activity and oxidative damage in common lizards subject to low and high food availability. Food restriction abolished the carotenoid-based color enhancement when corticosterone concentrations in animals were high. We discuss how carotenoid-based color can honestly signal individual quality in this species and how the increased redness induced by corticosterone could be a terminal investment in an environment where long-term survival prospects are poor but not when immediate survival is endangered.
Cotto, O. & Massot, M. & Ronce, O. & Clobert, J. (2015) -
Dispersal syndromes describe the patterns of covariation of morphological, behavioural, and life-history traits associated with dispersal. Studying dispersal syndromes is critical to understanding the demographic and genetic consequences of movements. Among studies describing the association of life- history traits with dispersal, there is anecdotal evidence suggesting that dispersal syndromes can vary with age. Recent theory also suggests that dispersive and philopatric individuals might have different age-specific reproductive efforts. In a wild population of the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara), we investigated whether dispersive and philopatric individuals have different age-specific reproductive effort, survival, offspring body condition, and offspring sex ratio. Consistent with theoretical predictions, we found that young dispersive females have a higher reproductive effort than young philopatric females. Our results also suggest that the early high investment in reproduction of dispersive females trades-off with an earlier onset of senescence than in philopatric females. We further found that young dispersive females produce smaller offspring in lower body condition than do young philopatric females. Overall, our results provide empirical evidence that dispersive and philopatric individuals have different age-specific life-history traits.
Courtens, J.L. & Depeiges, A. (1985) -
To the common aspects of spermiogenesis in Reptilia, several new organelles are described in the lizard. One or two nuclear pouches, formed by the invagination of the nuclear envelope, contain a substance similar to that of the perinuclear substance. They are formed near the acrosome and follow an helical pathway at the surface of the nucleus. The pouches could be driven by a nuclear ribbon made of six to seven microtubules engaged in the mouth of each pouch. The perinuclear substance, transported by the pouches, is deposited near the posterior part of the nucleus. The evolution of the nuclear pores, and the attachment of the chromatin to the nuclear envelope suggest that the chromatin is twisted inside the nucleus, following the displacement of the nuclear pouches. Adjacent pouches are separated by a lamellar plate, possibly originating from a modified mitochondrion. Untwisting of the nucleus and chromatin is evident at the time the manchette is present. The chromatin fibers become coarser and are progressively aligned parallel to the nuclear axis. The midpiece of the flagellum is very short; it wears 15 mitochondria disposed into three crowns. The ribs of the fibrous sheet are synthesized from the posterior part of the flagellum, anteriorly. A tegosomial sheet is described. It is composed of lipidic droplets that are injected between the two nuclear membranes, prior to the spermiation. A classification of the steps of spermiogenesis is proposed.
Courty, Y. (1991) -
The hormonal requirements for the regulation of Lv132 mRNA coding for two proteins secreted by the principal cells of the lizard epididymis were examined by organotypic culture experiments. Testosterone, R1881 and corticosterone induced accumulation of Lv132 mRNA in explants from lizards castrated immediately after differentiation of the principal cells. The induction by testosterone was inhibited by the addition of cyproterone acetate. Progesterone and oestradiol alone or in presence of testosterone were ineffective. Unlike the induction by testosterone, the effect of corticosterone did not require binding on the androgen receptor as shown by competition binding studies. Corticosterone failed to induce gene expression in organs containing only reserve cells in their epithelium at the onset of the culture. However, corticosterone plus testosterone had a synergistic effect. These data suggest that testosterone promotes the differentiation of principal cells from reserve cells during the culture time and that a primary action of testosterone is necessary to confer corticosterone responsiveness on this tissue. Furthermore, the primary effects of testosterone could be memorized by the tissue because the corticosterone responsiveness persists after castration.
Courty, Y. & Dufaure, J.P. (1979) -
estosterone concentration in the plasma and testis were measured by radioimmunoassay in 90 males of viviparous lizards. Determinations were performed at twice monthly intervals from March to October during two annual cycles. Plasma level of testosterone reached a peak of 445 ng/ml in the mating season, then fell abruptly to the value of 2 ng/ml in July, rose in September, then remained at a similar level of approximately 30–40 ng/ml before and after hibernation. Testosterone levels in the testis followed the plasma values except in June when the testicular levels were high although the plasma concentrations were low. This period (June) is characterized by atrophy of the epididymis (secondary sexual character) and of the seminiferous tubules and precedes the renewal of spermatogenesis (early testicular recrudescence). The plasma values of testosterone and their range of variations in this species are the highest presently known in vertebrates.
Covaciu-Marcov, S.-D. & Sas, I. & Cicort-Lucaciu, A. & Achim, A. & Andritcu, A. (2005) -
We studied the composition and the geographic spreading of the herpethofauna from Tasnad Hills, between the years 2000 and 2003. In this region, we have identified 12 Amphibian species (Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus dobrogicus, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea, Pelobates fuscus, Rana ridibunda, Rana dalmatina and Rana arvalis), 8 Reptile species (Emys orbicularis, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta agilis, Zootoca vivipara, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, Coronella austriaca, Vipera berus) and 3 species of hybrids between some amphibian species (Triturus cristatus X Triturus dobrogicus, , Bombina bombina X Bombina variegata and Rana Kl. esculenta). We also found numerous Zootoca vivipara populations in the swamps from the plain region, the species being well represented at altitudes of about 150 m. What is also important to mention is the fact that we found Triturus dobrogicus, hybrids between this species and Triturus cristatus, or the first ever discovery of Vipera berus in Tasnad Hills, at about 200 m altitude.
Covaciu-Marcov, S.-D. & Sas, I. & Cicort-Lucaciu, A. & Kovács, É.-H. (2003) -
Covaciu-Marcov, S.D. & Cicort-Lucaciu, A.S. & Bogdan, H.V. & Kovacs, E.H. & Maghiar, C. (2008) -
In the studied area we encountered 14 species of amphibians (Salamandra salamandra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus dobrogicus, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Pelobates fuscus, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana ridibunda, Rana lessonae, Rana dalmatina, Rana arvalis) and 9 species of reptiles (Emys orbicularis, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Zootoca vivipara, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, Coronella austriaca, Elaphe longissima and Vipera berus). Hybrids between Triturus cristatus and Triturus dobrogicus, Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata and Rana kl. esculenta are also present in this region. The herpetofauna of this reservation from the inferior course of the Tur River stands out through the glacier relicts that live here, in the woody swamps from the plains (R. arvalis, Z. vivipara and V. berus). Population of Salamandra salamandra and Bombina variegata can be found here at altitudes of no more than 140 m. In this reservation, all the three forms of the Rana green complex that live in Romania are present. The most important sectors of the reservation, from what the herpetofauna is concerned, are the afforested areas. These shelter most of the species and the biggest population of the protected species. The results of our study show the necessity to include into the reservation the forests from Livada.
Covaciu-Marcov, S.D. & Cicort-Lucaciu, A.S. & Ferenti, S. & Anamaria, D. (2008) -
In the North-Western part of Romania (the Western Plains) we have identified Zootoca vivipara populations in 78 localities, at altitudes between 89 and 198 m. In this area, the distribution of the viviparous lizard is restricted to regions where the yearly average temperature is lower than 10 0C. In the Western Plains, the Zootoca vivipara populations are located in very humid habitats. They inhabit both forested and cleared wetlands, occupying marshes or the areas around plashes. In the Northern part of the Western Plains, the Zootoca vivipara populations from the plain are separated from the ones from the Oaş Mountains, by not more than 30 km.
Covaciu-Marcov, S.D. & Cicort-Lucaciu, A.S. & Sas,I. & Mosu, A.G. & Toth, B. (2008) -
In western Maramures county we encountered 13 species of amphibians (Salamandra salamandra, Triturus montandoni, Triturus cristatus, Triturus vulgaris, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis Hyla arborea, Rana ridibunda, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria), 7 species of reptile (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Zootoca vivipara, Anguis fragilis, Elaphe longissima, Coronella austriaca, Natrix, natrix), as well as hybrids between Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata and also populations of Rana esculenta. The hybrids between the 2 species of Bombina are present at the same altitude as in the rest of western Romania in general. In this region are present plain species as well as species prone to higher areas. The Carpathian newt descends to a more reduced altitude then in general in Romania, but comparable to those at which it was noticed in the Oas region.
Covaciu-Marcov, S.D. & Popovici, P.V. & Cicort-Lucaciu, A.S. & Kovács, I.S. & Cupsa, D. & Ferenti, S. (2020) -
Herpetofauna is of interest in protected areas because of the large number of protected species. We studied the herpetofauna of Cozia National Park (CNP) between 2016 and 2018. CNP is situated in the central part of the Southern Romanian Carpathians. We recorded 10 species of amphibian (Salamandra salamandra, Triturus cristatus, Lissotriton vulgaris, Bombina variegata, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, Bufotes viridis, Pelophylax ridibundus, Rana dalmatina and R. temporaria), and 11 reptile species (Lacerta agilis, L. viridis, Podarcis muralis, Darevskia praticola, Zootoca vivipara, Anguis colchica, Natrix natrix, N. tessellata, Coronella austriaca, Zamenis longissimus and Vipera ammodytes). Reptiles dominate in number of species, number of individuals and distribution records. CNP is situated at the northern limit of the distribution range of some of these reptiles, notably D. praticola and V. ammodytes. Mountain species associated with a colder, moist climate are very rare or even absent. Zootoca vivipara is restricted to the highest areas of Mount Cozia, above 1 350 m. Although mountain species are well represented in other Carpathian regions, the warmer, drier climate of CNP and its surroundings has limited their distribution in the area, pushing Z. vivipara to higher and higher altitudes. Lacerta agilis is syntopic with all the other lizard species. In some areas, as many as four lizard species cohabitate. The distribution of the herpetofauna in CNP has been negatively influenced by past human activity. The dams on the River Olt have favoured species related to large, stagnant bodies of water, in a region where such habitats were naturally missing. In addition, massive deforestation has decreased the abundance of herpetofauna in many areas of CNP.
Cowlishaw, G. & Avery, R.A. (1991) -
Cox, N. & Chanson, J. & Stuart, S. (2006) -
Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J. & Aleksic, I. (2004) -
Variation in a few reproductive traits (i.e. clutch size, female body mass after capture and after parturition and hatchling body mass and lenght) of Lacerta vivipara has been studied in two populations from Serbia (Stara Mountain -Southeastern Serbia and Šara Mountain -Southernmost Serbia). Mean clutch size was reported as 6.9 and 5.9 for samples from Stara Mt. and Šara Mt., respectively. Absence of difference in mothers` SVL among samples indicates similar age structure, as SVL is strongly correlated with age. Mean hatchling body mass per female varied significantly within populations. Significant between-sample differences were detected for mean effective relative clutch masses. Absence of a trade-off between clutch size and the average mass of offspring in analyzed populations from Serbia could mean that there is a strategy of producing a clutch size characterized by good body condition, but this strategy can be varied in order to be able to subsequently reduce the size of the brood in poor years.
Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J. & Dinov, J. & Isailovic, O. & Randelovic, V. (2015) -
Cyrén, O. (1924) -
Cyrén, O. (1929) -
Cyrén, O. (1933) -
Cyrén, O. (1934) -
Cyrén, O. (1941) -
Czaker, R. (1970) -
Czaker, R. (1972) -
Czernay (1851) -
D´Eath, F.M. (1987) -
Damme, R. van & Bauwens, D. & Thoen, C. & Vanderstighelen, D. & Verheyen, R.F. (1995) -
The ability to recognize chemical cues from predatory snakes is congenital in the common lizard Lacerta vivipara. This conclusion follows from a series of experiments in which we observed the behavior of naive lab-born lizards in terraria that had previously been inhabited by predatory snakes. Chemicals from both the viper Vipera berus (a sympatric predator) and the smooth snake Coronella austriaca (an allopatric saurophagic snake) elicited a sharp increase in tongue-flick rates. The lizards, when confronted with snake chemicals, exhibited an increased number of foot shakes, tail vibrations and starts, and moved about in a strange, jerky way. In these aspects, the behavioral response of juvenile lizards resembled that of adults. The only quantitative age-related difference concerned thermoregulatory be havior: whereas juveniles refrained almost completely from basking in the presence of snake chemicals, adult lizards basked equally long in snake and control experiments.
Dankler, M. (1900) -
Darevsky, I.S. (1953) -
Dauphin-Villemant, C. & Leboulenger, F. & Vaudry, H. (1990) -
The variations of interrenal activity were investigated in captive female Lacerta vivipara submitted to artificial hibernation (4 months at 6“) and compared to data obtained in nonhibernating females. Plasma corticosterone levels reached 25 r&ml during the prehibemal period. During the first day following the transfer to cold conditions, an initial significant peak of plasma corticosterone was observed (up to 63 ng/ml). A second, more gradual, but also signiticant increase was observed thereafter and levels remained maximum during the two first months of artificial hibernation (75 ng/ml). The circulating levels of corticosterone then decreased gradually. At the time of transfer to warm conditions, a third significant peak of corticosterone was observed (up to 82 rng/ml). The minimal values (15 ng/ml) previously described during vitellogenesis were reached within 1 week. High corticosterone levels appeared to be actually related to the “hibernation state” since they were also observed in hibernating males and not in nonhibemating females. In order to explain the pattern of plasma corticosterone, variations of adrenal sensitivity to synthetic ACTH l-39 were examined in vitro, using a perifusion system technique. Surprisingly, ACTH-induced stimulation of corticosterone and aldosterone release was significantly reduced during hibemation, whatever the temperature of the perifusion bath (30 or 6”). Nevertheless, a fourfold increase in the half-life of injected tritiated corticosterone was observed during hibernation which likely contributes to maintain high levels of corticosterone despite a low production rate of the hormone.
Dauphin-Villemant, C. & Leboulenger, F. & Xavier, F. & Vaudry, H. (1990) -
Variations of adrenal activity were studied in captive viviparous females Lacerta vivipara, in relation to breeding activities. The study was restricted to the period of active life which includes both the phase of annual reproduction and a phase of sexual inactivity. Significant seasonal changes in plasma corticosterone levels were measured with a peak during the second half of gestation followed by an abrupt fall at parturition. No significant variations in plasma aldosterone levels were observed. A limited extraovarian production of progesterone was detected which might be of adrenal origin. The half-life of injected tritiated corticosterone was not longer in pregnant than in nonreproductive females, suggesting that the peak of circulating corticosterone in pregnant females corresponds to an increase in the production rate of the hormone. The functional importance of the pituitary-adrenal axis was demonstrated in vivo: plasma corticosteroid levels dropped to the detection limit after adenohypophysectomy. Seasonal variations of adrenal sensitivity to synthetic ACTH 1–39 were examined in vitro, using a perifusion system. No significant variations were observed throughout the period of active life. These results suggest that the peak of plasma corticosterone during gestation can be ascribed to activation of the pituitary-adrenal axis. Experimental modifications of circulating corticosterone level during late gestation altered the timing of parturition, thus indicating that the fall of corticosterone just before term may be involved in the process of parturition in the female L. vivipara.
Dauphin-Villemant, C. & Xavier, F. (1987) -
This work was designed to study nychthemeral variations of plasma corticosterone and aldosterone in captive female lizards Lacerta vivipara. In preliminary experiments, the possible alterations of plasma corticosteroids by various stress factors were researched. A prolonged blood sampling (up to 8 min) did not alter plasma corticosterone levels but a significant increase of plasma aldosterone levels was observed. Confinement (1 or 18 hr) in small individual cages before blood collection resulted in a significant increase of both corticosterone and aldosterone. Whatever the period investigated (vitellogenesis, gestation, 2 months after parturition), plasma corticosterone levels showed a unimodal daily rhythm correlated with the activity of the females in the laboratory. No shift of the peak was observed according to season but the mean minimal and maximal levels were lower during vitellogenesis than during the other periods tested. Nychthemeral variations of plasma aldosterone levels were similar to those of corticosterone but of lower amplitude. Adrenal response to a short confinement (less than 1 hr) before blood sampling varied during a 24-hr period (period tested: vitellogenesis). Only minimal levels of corticosteroids were significantly increased. The possible effects of a long duration of captivity under optimal thermal conditions are discussed.
Davies, R.S. (1984) -
Davis, C. (2003) -
Dear, R. (2014) -
Deichsel, G. (2008) -
Deichsel, G. (2013) -
Delft, J.J.C.W. van & Kuenen, F.J.A. (1998) -
Delft, J.J.C.W. van & Rijsewijk, A.C. van (2005) -
Dely, O.G. (1957) -
Dely, O.G. (1978) -
Paper summarizes the results of investigations carried out on nthe morphological variation of the lizard Lacerta vivipara Jacquin. Data taken from 70 European specimens originating from different lowland and mountain localities have shown an increased variability of the morphological characters in populations from lowland localities, but variability decreased in groups living more northwards or in mountain regions. The increased variability of the mentioned populations may be caused by the reduced viability owing to isolation. The lowland form of Lacerta vivipara revealing an increased variability and living in refugial territories of the former glacial area seems to be the more ancient type while the mountain form represents an advanced one.
Dely, O.G. (1981) -
Dely, O.G. & Böhme, W. (1984) -
Dely, O.G. & Stohl, G. (1982) -
Comparative analyses were carried out about the variability of the pileal shields of different species belonging to the family Lacertidae. The results of the comparisons have been evaluated in respect to the phylogenetical relationships existing between the different genera and species of the family.
Denneman, A.K. & Denneman, W.D. (1978) -
in the very centre of Burgundy (France) was visited in the summer of 1975 and 1977 during 4 and 3 weeks. An area of 50 square kilometers was investigated mainly in respect to the reptiles and amphibians. They appeared to be well represented, the amphibians with 5 species: Rana temporaria, Bujo bujo, Bombina variegata, Trilllrus helveticus and Salamandra s. terrestris. We also met the following species of reptiles: Lacerta agilis, Lacerta vivipara, A nguis fragilis, Coronella austriaca, Natrix natrix and presumably Elaphe longissima.
The occurrence of Lacerta muralis and Lacerta viridis near Beaune is mentioned.
Dent, S. (1986) -
Dent, S. & Spellerberg, J.F. (1987) -
The ecology of the two lizard species Lacerta agilis and Lacerta vivipara were studied within coniferous plantations. These two species use three areas: unplanted areas such as fire breaks or areas where crops have failed; compartments where planting has occurred but tree canopy formation later makes the habitat unsuitable; and ride verges. The study was designed to compare the two lizard species in terms of their use of ride verges. The distribution of the two species along the verges was determined in part by the characteristics of ground flora, the surrounding tree canopy and by the slope and aspect. It was found that the two species were associated with different kinds of vegetation. Although the vegetation of the rides is similar to that of open heathland, the ride habitat may have limited use because the plantation trees restrict the duration of sunshine received at the surface. Both species were found to be limited in their distribution along ride verges relative to a sunshine index. Data from this research could usefully be used in the conservation of small reptile populations within coniferous plantations.
Depeiges, A. & Betail, G. & Coulet, M. & Dufaure, J.P. (1985) -
The epididymis of lizards elaborates voluminous secretory granules made of a central core and a peripheral vacuole which in the species Lacerta vivipara contain respectively an insoluble protein (protein H) and a soluble protein (protein L). After their discharge these secretions mix with spermatozoa. In order to detect the presence of carbohydrates in these secretions, lectins isolated from Canavalia ensiformis (con A) and from eleven other plants (lentil, soja, pea, gorse and several mushrooms), conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate, have been utilized in light-microscopic histochemical investigations of frozen sections from Lacerta vivipara epididymis. Whereas lectins having affinity for Lfucose, lactose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine bound to central cores, lectins having affinity to D-glucose, N-acetylglucosamine and chitobiose bound to the peripheral vacuole. D-mannose or D-glucose seem to be present both in central cores and in peripheral vacuoles.
Depeiges, A. & Dacheux, J.L. (1985) -
Depeiges, A. & Force, A. & Fufaure, J.P. (1987) -
From epididymal fluid samples taken at three different times during the reproductive period (early April, late April, mid-May), the soluble proteins were separated with one dimensional electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. Their evolution was studied: firstly quantitatively, after staining with Coomassie blue, or, for one protein (the `L` protein), by immunodetection; secondly, according to their glycosylation after transfer to nitrocellulose and treatment with a set of labelled lectins: from Wheat germ, Ricinus communis, Lens culinaris, Asparagus pea or Canavalia ensiformis, with or without use of their specific inhibitor sugars. At least 15 proteins underwent a quantitative and/or qualitative evolution, mainly during the month of April. Protein `L` (19 kDa), which is androgen dependent and which fixates on to spermatozoa during their epididymal transit, appears to be little or not glycosylated. By contrast its accumulation in the epididymal canal increases considerably during the month of April. Five other proteins proved to be especially interesting because of their evolution during this same period, notably the MW 94, 67, 35, 29 and 25.5 kDa proteins. With the exception of the 67 kDa all the others increased quantitatively. All were decisively enriched in mannose or in methyl-mannoside residues. The proteins of MW 29 and 25.5 kDa were also enriched in galactose or N-acetyl galactosamine residues. These findings are of physiological significance since they are set up concomitantly with the acquisition of maximum motility of spermatozoa in the distal segment of the epididymis, and they coincide with a very great increase in testosteronemia.
Dessimoz, F. & Rathey, E. (2009) -
DGHT (2006) -
Dieckmann, M. (2011) -
Dieckmann, M. (2012) -
The author describes the diversity of the flora and fauna at the former gypsum quarry Tettenborn-Kolonie near Bad Sachsa (Lower Saxony). Many of the documented plants and animals are listed as threatened species in the red List. The herpetofauna of theis area consists of the palmate newt, fore salamander, midwife toad, samooth snake, common lizard as well as the sand lizard. In conclusion the author points to the ecological valuation of ther gypsum mining.
Dieckmann, M. (2018) -
Dieckmann, M. (2019) -
Diesener, G. & Reichholf, J. (1986) -
Dietrich, N. (2008) -
Dijk, J.J. van (1996) -
Dijkhuis, L.J. (1944) -
Dinca, P.C. & Strugariu, A. & Stoica, D.L. & Zamirescu, S.R. (2014) -
Amphibians and reptiles are declining worldwide and information on their detailed distribution is key to proper conservation initiatives. This paper presents the results of a rapid survey on the composition and distribution of herpetofauna from the Taia River Valley (Hunedoara County, Romania), one of the many unstudied areas of the Southern Carpathians. We recorded the presence of three species of amphibians (Ichtyosaura alpestris, Bombina variegata and Rana temporaria) and three reptile species (Podarcis muralis, Lacerta agilis and Zootoca vivipara). The internationally threatened Yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata) was the most common amphibian in the study area.
Dong, B.-J. & Zhao, W.-G. & Liu, Z.-T. & Liu, P. & Chen, H. (2007) -
This paper deals with preliminary studies on tail autotomy and regeneration in the common lizard Lacerta vivipara from 2001 to 2006 in Heilongjiang Province.The results showed that the percent of tail autotomy was 28.26% in neonates and 45.45% in adults,which could be explained that more survival pressure in adults.Activity time was related with the length and the position of the severed tails.The growth speed of regeneration tails was more quickly than original tails and a scale of squama was the longest in regeneration tails.
Dong, B.J. & Zhao, W.G. & Liu, Z.T. & Liu, P. (2004) -
Doronin, I.V. & Ermolina, L.P. (2012) -
A reptile catalogue of the Zoological Museum, Stavropol State University, is presented. 1,019 specimens of 88 species collected within the territories of Russian Federation, Ukraine, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and some other areas are listed. The history of the Museum and the formation of its collection are given.
Доронин И.В., Ермолина Л.П. (2012) -
Представлен каталог рептилий Зоологического музея Ставропольского государственного университета, в котором дается информация о 1019 экз. 88 видов, собранных на территориях России, Украины, Грузии, Казахстана, Узбекистана, Туркмении. Рассмотрена история создания музея и формирования коллекции.
Douglass, G.N. (1891) -
Dreismann, G. (1978) -
Drengubiak, P. (2013) -
The aim of the study was to map the distribution of common lizard in diverse structure of microhabitats of the model area and based on knowledge of the species distribution, to suggest appropriate management measures for individual microhabitats. During the research period since May to September of 2011 and 2012, aggregated and random distribution of viviparous lizard individuals in the model area was determined. Considering that distribution, baseline and alternative management models of non-forest vegetation areas were designed.
Dudek, K. & Ekner-Grzyb, A.Y. (2014) -
Dudek, K. & Sajkowska, Z. & Gawalek, M. & Ekner-Grzyb, A. (2014) -
Dufaure, J.-P. (1960) -
Dufaure, J.-P. (1964) -
Dufaure, J.-P. (1970) -
Interstitial cells of the testis of Lacerta vivipara have been studied electronmicroscopically in animals obtained between spring and autumn.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria with tubular cristae are the most prominent organels, lipid droplets and Golgi apparatus being also well developed.
The most significant ultrastructural changes occur between spring and the beginning of summer. In spring, during the hypertrophy of secondary sexual characters, a conspicuous system of vesicles and vacuoles originates from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and probably also from the Golgi apparatus. At the beginning of summer, when secondary sexual characters are atrophied, vacuoles are less prominent and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum consists of a dense network of typical tubules, often closely associated with the lipid droplets; the cristae of the mitochondria are swollen.
These ultrastructural findings are discussed in relation to the production of hormones. The hypertrophy of membrane systems in spring corresponds presumably to production or (and) release of androgen hormones. In the beginning of summer the cell does not produce androgens, but probably is not completely inactive: it may store precursors of hormones.
Dufaure, J.-P. (1971) -
Sertoli cells of the testis of Lacerta vivipara have been studied electron microscopically in animals obtained between spring and autumn during two years and in animals hypophysectomized in autumn.
These cells contain numerous small mitochondria with lamellar cristae, free ribosomes, smooth endoplasmic reticulum moderately developed, several small dictyosomes forming the Golgi complex, lipid droplets and microtubules. There are numerous dense bodies of large size with an heterogeneous content which seem to be of lysosomial nature. Glycogen consists of β particles dispersed at random in the hyaloplasm. Seasonal variations in the content of glycogen are noted. In hypophysectomized animals Sertoli cells contain large amounts of that metabolite whose particles are concentrated in small areas often around the lipid droplets.
Possible role of the Sertoli cells concerning mechanical support and nutrition of the germinal cells, production of hormones and phagocytosis of residual bodies are discussed. The variations in the glycogen content are also discussed.
Dufaure, J.-P. (1983) -
Dufaure, J.-P. & Depeiges, A. & Chambon, M. (1983) -
During the breeding season (April, May) the epididymis of the lizard Lacerta vivipara produces voluminous secretory granules which are abundantly discharged into the lumen of the duct where they mingle with spermatozoa. The mode of secretion appears quite unusual with respect to the method by which the cells discharge their products, the granules coming out of the cells like bullets out of a gun barrel. Spermatozoa come into close relationships with discharged granules, dipping into their outer layers. This is probably the way in which the heads of spermatozoa become covered with the epididymal soluble protein (protein L). This mode of secretion in Lacerta is discussed with regard to possible artifacts and compared with that encountered in the epididymis of some other species including mammals.
Dufaure, J.-P. & Hubert, J. (1961) -
Dufaure, J.P. (1979) -
Dufaure, J.P. & Gigon, A. (1975) -
The lizard epididymis is controlled by the testis, as is demonstrated by castration. It selectively retains testosterone and is capable of converting this hormone into 5α-dihydrotestosterone and 5α-androstanediols. Furthermore, it shows marked modifications of structure, particularly of the epithelium, during the annual cycle and is characterized by a copious secretion when active. In organotypic culture of regressed cells from castrated animals we have obtained secretory cells of normal size after treatment with a variety of androgens. Different degrees of stimulation were observed: 5α-DHT and 3β-androstanediol are more potent than 3α-androstanediol and the latter is more potent than testosterone.Electron-microscopic examination of treated tissue shows that 5αDHT produces an increase in nuclear and nucleolar size and conspicuously stimulates the production of rough endoplasmic reticulum.It is suggested that this organ might be used as a model to study the mechanism of androgen action.
Duflos, S. (2000) -
Dujsebayeva, T. & Chirikova, M. (2001) -
Dujsebayeva, T.N. & Barabanov, A.B. & Ananjeva, N.B. (2018) -
In this article, a list of lizards of fauna of Kazakhstan, compiled according to the latest taxonomic revisions with the aim of unifying the taxonomy is presented, and a short outline of the history of views on the composition of fauna of Kazakhstan lizards are presented. The tasks of this work are explained by a significant increase in the number of special publications and frequent changes in views on the phylogenetic position and taxonomic status of species.
Т.Н. Дуйсебаева & А.В. Барабанов & Н.Б. Ананьева (2018) -
В настоящей статье приведен список ящериц фауны Казахстана, составлен- ный согласно последним таксономическим ревизиям с целью унификации таксономии на данном отрезке времени, а также представлен краткий очерк истории взглядов на состав фауны ящериц Казахстана. Задачи этой рабо- ты продиктованы существенным ростом числа специальных публикаций и частыми изменениями во взглядах на филогенетическое положение и так- сономический статус видов.
Dujsebayeva, T.N. & Orlova, V.F. (2002) -
Dujsebayeva, T.N. & V.F. Orlova (2009) -
The paper summarizes data on the distribution and ecology of viviparous lizard, Zootoca vivipara (Jacquin, 1787), in Markakol depression and the surrounding areas of Eastern Kazakhstan. Analysis of ther original data collected by the authors in 2000 – 2003 and revision of museum records have revealed a wide distribution of the species in Markakol despression and the Southern Altai mounatins in general, within an altitude range of 1450 – 2400 m above s.l. Data on habitats, abundance, seasonal and daily activity as well as some aspects of the breeding biology of the lizard are discussed. Maps with Z. vivipara records in Eastern Kazakhstan and markakol despression arew presented.
Дуйсебаева Т.Н., Орлова В.Ф. (2009) -
Обобщены данные по распространению и экологии живородящей ящерицы - Zootoca vivipara (Jacquin,1787) в Маркакольской котловине и прилежащих районах Восточного Казахстана. В результате анализа собственных материалов, собранных в 2000 - 2003 гг., и ревизии музейных сборов показано, что вид широко распространен в Маркакольской котловине и на Южном Алтае в целом, в диапазоне высот от 1450 - 2400 м н.у.м. Обсуждаются особенности биотопического размещения и численности вида, сезонная и суточная активность, а также некоторые аспекты репродуктивной биологии. Приводятся карты с точками находок Z. vivipara в Восточном Казахстане и Маркакольской котловине.
Duméril, A.M.C. & Bibron, G. (1834) -
Duméril, A.M.C. & Bibron, G. (1839) -
Dunaev, E.A. & Orlova, V.F. (2017) -
From the publisher:
Before you a unique atlas-determinant. For the first time in one edition descriptions of all species of amphibians and reptiles living on the territory of Russia are presented, illustrated with beautiful color photographs. The book is written by E.A. Dunaev and V.F. Orlova, the famous Russian herpetologists, researchers of the Zoological Museum of Moscow State University named after MV Lomonosov. Lomonosov. A simple and accessible form of presentation, detailed descriptions of the external appearance, lifestyle and behavior, photographs reflecting all variants of the variability of these animals, will help the curious reader to become more familiar with turtles, snakes, lizards, frogs and other representatives of the herpetofauna. And special keys will allow you to determine who you met on a country walk, in a city park, at a dacha or while traveling to different corners of our country.
The book is of great interest not only for nature lovers, but also for specialists in herpetology and students of biological faculties of universities. It lists the amphibians and reptiles of the native fauna, reflects the latest changes in the taxonomy of these groups, lists species included in the Red Book of Russia and regional Red Books, lists reference and scientific publications on reptiles and amphibians of Russian fauna.
Дунаев, Е.A. & Орлова, B.Ф. (2017) -
Перед вами уникальный атлас-определитель. Впервые в одном издании представлены описания всех видов земноводных и пресмыкающихся, обитающих на территории России, проиллюстрированные прекрасными цветными фотографиями. Книга написана Е.А. Дунаевым и В.Ф. Орловой, известными отечественными герпетологами, научными сотрудниками Зоологического музея Московского государственного университета имени М.В. Ломоносова.Простая и доступная форма изложения, подробные описания внешнего облика, образа жизни и поведения, фотографии, отражающие все варианты изменчивости этих животных, помогут любознательному читателю ближе познакомиться с черепахами, змеями, ящерицами, лягушками и другими представителями герпетофауны. А специальные ключи позволят определить, с кем именно вы встретились на загородной прогулке, в городском парке, на даче или во время путешествий по различным уголкам нашей страны.
Книга представляет большой интерес не только для любителей природы, но и для специалистов-герпетологов и студентов биологических факультетов вузов. В ней приведен полный список амфибий и рептилий отечественной фауны, отражены новейшие изменения в таксономии этих групп, указаны виды, включенные в Красную книгу России и региональные Красные книги, перечислены справочные и научные издания, посвященные рептилиям и амфибиям фауны России.
Dunbar, J.P. & Ennis, C. & Gandola, R. & Dugon, M.M. (2017) -
As the Noble false widow spider Steatoda nobilis (Thorell 1875) continues to expand its range across Europe, Asia and the Americas, its potential as an invasive species has not yet been fully assessed. Latrodectinae spiders are remarkably adaptable and possess fast-acting neurotoxic venom that can cause neuromuscular paralysis in vertebrates and occasionally feed on small reptiles. We describe here a predation event by a mature female Steatoda nobilis on a juvenile Zootoca vivipara lizard in suburban Dublin. This is the first report of Steatoda nobilis preying on a vertebrate, and the first report of a terrestrial vertebrate organism falling prey to an arachnid in Ireland. Zootoca vivipara is a protected species in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland and may increasingly fall prey to Steatoda nobilis as urbanisation encroaches on lizard habitat. Therefore, Steatoda nobilis should be closely monitored outside of its original native range to assess its status as an invasive species.
Dupoué, A. & Angelier, F. & Ribout, C. & Meylan, S. & Rozen-Rechels, D. & Decencière, B. & Agostini, S. & J.-F. le Galliard (2020) -
Animals use a variety of strategies to avoid acute dehydration and death. Yet,how chronic exposure to sub-lethal dehydration may entail physiological andfitness costs remains elusive. In this study, we experimentally tested if waterrestriction causesincreasedoxidativestress (OS)andtelomerelength(TL)short-ening, two well-described mediators of environment–fitness relationships. Weexposed 100 yearling female and male common lizards (Zootoca vivipara)eitherto a 51-day period of water restriction or to water ad libitum, followed by 45days in common garden outdoor conditions. We measured the kinetic changesin OS and TL and found that water-restricted males had enhanced antioxidantdefences and decreased oxidative damage at day 36, whereas females did notimmediately respond. A month and a half after water restriction, both sexesexperienced a drop in antioxidant capacity but only males exhibited significantTL shortening. In the following 3 years, we found that lizards with longer initialTL and those who maintained stronger antioxidant defences experiencedhigherlongevity, irrespective ofsex and water restriction.Together,theseresultsunravelled sex-specific responses to water restriction, with potential appli-cations in better understanding the physiological costs of increasing summerdroughts as a result of global climate change.
Dupoué, A. & Rutschmann, A. & Galliard, J,F. le & Miles, D.B. & Clobert, J. & Nardo, D.F. de & Brusch IV, G.A. & Maylan, S. (2017) -
Water conservation strategies are well documented in species living in water-limited environments, but physiological adaptations to water availability in temperate climate environments are still relatively overlooked. Yet, temperate species are facing more frequent and intense droughts as a result of climate change. Here, we examined variation in field hydration state (plasma osmolality) and standardized evaporative water loss rate (SEWL) of adult male and pregnant female common lizards (Zootoca vivipara) from 13 natural populations with contrasting air temperature, air humidity, and access to water. We found different patterns of geographic variation between sexes. Overall, males were more dehydrated (i.e. higher osmolality) than pregnant females, which likely comes from differences in field behaviour and water intake since the rate of SEWL was similar between sexes. Plasma osmolality and SEWL rate were positively correlated with environmental temperature in males, while plasma osmolality in pregnant females did not correlate with environmental conditions, reproductive stage or reproductive effort. The SEWL rate was significantly lower in populations without access to free standing water, suggesting that lizards can adapt or adjust physiology to cope with habitat dryness. Environmental humidity did not explain variation in water balance. We suggest that geographic variation in water balance physiology and behaviour should be taken account to better understand species range limits and sensitivity to climate change.
Dupoué, A. & Rutschmann, A. & Galliard, J.F. le & Clobert, J. & Angelier, F. & Marciau, C. & Ruault, S. & Miles, D. & Meylan, S. (2017) -
Identifying the early warning signals of catastrophic extinctions has recently become a central focus for ecologists, but species’ functional responses to environmental changes remain an untapped source for the sharpening of such warning signals. Telomere length (TL) analysis represents a promising molecular tool with which to raise the alarm regarding early population decline, since telomere attrition is associated with aging processes and accelerates after a recurrent exposure to environmental stressors. In the southern margin of their range, populations of the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) recently became extinct at lowest elevations due to changes in climate conditions. However, the proximal signals involved in these demographic declines are still unknown. Here, we sampled 100 yearling lizards from 10 natural populations (n = 10 per population) along an extinction risk gradient. Relative lizard abundance dramatically dropped over 12 years in low-altitude populations characterized by warmer ambient temperatures and higher body growth of lizards early in life. A non-linear relationship was found between TL and population extinction risk, with shorter telomeres in populations facing high risk of extinction when compared to non-threatened ones. Our results identify TL as a promising biomarker and imply that population extinctions might be preceded by a loop of physiological aging.
Dupoué, A. & Rutschmann, A. & Galliard, J.F. le & Clobert, J. & Blaimont, P. & Sinervo, B. & Miles, D.B. & Haussy, C. & Meylan, S. (2018) -
1. Climate change should lead to massive loss of biodiversity in most taxa, but the detailed physiological mechanisms underlying population extinction remain largely elusive so far. In vertebrates, baseline levels of hormones such as glucocorticoids (GCs) may be indicators of population state as their secretion to chronic stress can impair survival and reproduction. However, the relationship between GC secretion, climate change and population extinction risk remains unclear. 2. In this study, we investigated whether levels of baseline corticosterone (the main GCs in reptiles) correlate with environmental conditions and associated extinction risk across wild populations of the common lizard Zootoca vivipara. 3. First, we performed a cross‐sectional comparison of baseline corticosterone levels along an altitudinal gradient among 14 populations. Then, we used a longitudinal study in eight populations to examine the changes in corticosterone levels following the exposure to a heatwave period. 4. Unexpectedly, baseline corticosterone decreased with increasing thermal conditions at rest in females and was not correlated with extinction risk. In addition, baseline corticosterone levels decreased after exposure to an extreme heatwave period. This seasonal corticosterone decrease was more pronounced in populations without access to standing water. 5. We suggest that low basal secretion of corticosterone may entail downregulating activity levels and limit exposure to adverse climatic conditions, especially to reduce water loss. These new insights suggest that rapid population decline might be preceded by a downregulation of the corticosterone secretion.
Dupoué, A. & Sorlin, M. & Richard, M. & Galliard, J.F. le & Lourdais, O. & Clobert, J. & Aubret, F. (2020) -
Parent-offspring conflicts are widespread given that resources are often limited. Recent evidence has shown that availability of water can trigger such conflict during pregnancy in viviparous squamate species (lizards and snakes) and thus questions the role of water in the evolution of reproductive modes. Here, we examined the impact of water restriction during gravidity in the oviparous form of the bimodal common lizard (Zootoca vivipara), using a protocol previously used on the viviparous form. Females were captured in early gravidity from six populations along a 600 m altitudinal gradient to investigate whether environmental conditions (altitude, water access and temperature) exacerbate responses to water restriction. Females were significantly dehydrated after water restriction, irrespective of their reproductive status (gravid vs. non-reproductive), relative reproductive effort (relative clutch mass), and treatment timing (embryonic development stage). Female dehydration, together with reproductive performance, varied with altitude, probably due to long term acclimation or local adaptation. This moderate water-based intergenerational conflict in gravid females contrasts sharply with previous findings for the viviparous form, with implications to the evolutionary reversion from viviparity to oviparity. It is likely that oviparity constitutes a water-saving reproductive mode which might help mitigate intensive temperature-driven population extinctions at low altitudes.
Dusej, G. & Billing, H. (1991) -
Džukić, G. & Kalezić, M. (2004) -
Dzukic, G. & Kalezic, M.L. (2001) -
Ecay, T.W. & Stewart, J.R. & Wiessner, G. & Heulin, B. (2017) -
The chorioallantoic membrane resides adjacent to either the inner surface of the egg shell or uterine epithelium in oviparous and viviparous reptiles, respectively. Chorionic cells face the shell or uterine epithelium and transport calcium to underlying embryonic capillaries. Calcium transport activity of the chorioallantois increases in the final stages of development coincident with rapid embryonic growth and skeletal ossification. We excised embryos from viviparous Zootoca vivipara females at a stage prior to significant calcium accumulation and incubated them ex utero with and without calcium to test the hypothesis that chorioallantois calcium transport activity depends on developmental stage and not calcium availability. We measured calcium uptake by monitoring incubation media calcium content and chorioallantois expression of calbindin-D28K, a marker for transcellular calcium transport. The pattern of calcium flux to the media differed by incubation condition. Eggs in 0 mM calcium exhibited little variation in calcium gain or loss. For eggs in 2 mM calcium, calcium flux to the media was highly variable and was directed inward during the last 3 days of the experiment such that embryos gained calcium. Calbindin-D28K expression increased under both incubation conditions but was significantly higher in embryos incubated with 2 mM calcium. We conclude that embryos respond to calcium availability, yet significant calcium accumulation is developmental stage dependent. These observations suggest the chorioallantois exhibits a degree of functional plasticity that facilitates response to metabolic or environmental fluctuations.
Edgar, P. (2010) -
Eggert, B. (1936) -
Ehnhardt, K. (1891) -
Ehrenhardt, H. (1936) -
Zwei flächengleiche Reizfiguren, Kreis und Kreuz, wurden, nacheinander geboten, auf dem Wege der Futterdressur von keiner Eidechse als Futteranzeiger sicher erlernt. Alle Sukzessivdressuren blieben erfolglos.
Dieselben zwei Figuren, nebeneinander geboten, werden schon ohne Dressur spontan voneinander unterschieden. Die natürliche Wahlneigung gilt dem Kreis. Es besteht die folgende spontane Rangordnung fallender Beliebtheit: Kreis, Quadrat, Dreieck, achtzackiger Stern, Kreuz.
Simultandressuren glückten immer nur im Sinne der Spontantendenz, konnten also stets nur die natürliche Neigung bekräftigen, die die weniger gegliederte Figur dem stärker gegliederten Partner vorzieht; das gilt selbst für Figurenpaare, die in der Beliebtheitsreihe nächstbenachbart sind.
Da im Spontanversuch alle einzeln dargebotenen Figuren gleich behandelt wurden, kann unter Mitberücksichtigung von 1., falls nicht doch noch einmal Sukzessivdressur mittels Strafreizen andere Ergebnisse zeitigen sollte, vorerst unter Vorbehalt geschlossen werden, daß Eidechsen Formbilder „absolut“ nicht in der Erinnerung festhalten können. Nur im Nebeneinander wählen sie, und zwar „relativ“.
Die Unterscheidungen waren unabhängig von der Raumlage der Figuren, von ihrer Größe nur oberhalb 1 qcm Fläche.
Die Formunterscheidung von Kreuz und Quadrat hält einer weitgehenden Angleichung der einen Figur an die andere stand. So kann ein einfacher Balken das Kreuz dem flächengleichen Quadrat gegenüber vertreten, wenn er gut doppelt so lang ist, wie die Seite des flächengleichen Quadrats. Das Quadrat, dem man an drei Ecken je ein Teilquadrat ausgeschnitten hat, so daß nur noch das vierte stehengebliebene es vom Kreuz unterscheidet, wird immer noch einwandfrei vor dem Kreuze bevorzugt; dabei beißt die Eidechse vorzugsweise in dies allein stehengebliebene Teilquadrat.
Am überlebenden Augapfel der Zauneidechse wurde der Abstand des Knotenpunkts von der Netzhaut mit 2,1 mm bestimmt.
Die histologische Netzhautuntersuchung bestätigte Cajals Angaben: Es fehlen Stäbchen; die Zapfen sind meist „gerade“, seltener „schräg“. Es gibt „versprengte Bipolaren“ sowie eine Area im Eidechsenauge.
Das Zahlenverhältnis Zapfen: versprengte Bipolaren: innere Körner: Ganglienzellen beträgt 3∶1∶16∶2.
Aus Schnittuntersuchungen unter Berücksichtigung der Schrumpfung und Beobachtungen an der überlebenden Netzhaut selbst ergaben sich übereinstimmend folgende Werte: die Zapfen sind am breitesten in der Peripherie (7,4 μ) und werden zur Area hin immer schmäler. Etwa 2 mm auswärts von der Area sind sie im Mittel 3,7 μ, in der Area selbst im Mittel 1,9 μ breit.
Der morphologische Sehwinkel beträgt demnach für Lacerta agilis peripher 12′ 7″, nahe der Area im Mittel 6′, in der Area 3′ 6″.
Der „physiologische Sehwinkel“ wurde bestimmt: a) aus der kritischen Entfernung für das Erkennen des Kreuzes zu 29′ 6″; b) für natürliche Beuteobjekte zu 14′ 38″, aus den optomotorischen Reaktionen bei Verwendung c) von Gleichzäunen (minimum separabile) zu 11′ 28″; d) von Weitzäunen (minimum visibile) zu 1′ 19″.
Das minimum visibile und separabile sind beide übereinstimmend abhängig von der Beleuchtungsstärke; an beiden gemessen nimmt die Sehschärfe mit fallender Beleuchtung ab. Die Kurven der Abhängigkeit der Sehschärfe von der Beleuchtung lassen den sonst für Wirbeltieraugen kennzeichnenden Knick vermissen, der dem Eintritt des Zapfenapparates bei Überschreiten der Farbschwelle entspricht. Dazu stimmt gut das morphologische Fehlen der Stäbchen in der Eidechsennetzhaut (vgl. 8.).
Eichwald, E. (1840) -
Eimer, T. (1881) -
Eizaguirre, C. & Laloi, D. & Massot, M. & Richard, M. & Federici, P. & Clobert, J. (2007) -
Species in which males do not contribute to reproduction beyond the provision of sperm offer good opportunities to study the potential genetic benefits that females can obtain from polyandry. Here, we report the results of a study examining the relationships between polyandry and components of female fitness in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara).We found that polyandrous females produce larger clutches than monandrous females. Polyandrous females also lose fewer offspring during the later stages of gestation and at birth, but we did not find any relationship between polyandry and physical characteristics of viable neonates. Our results were consistent with the predictions of the intrinsic male quality hypothesis, while inbreeding avoidance and genetic incompatibility avoidance might also explain some part of the variation observed in clutch size. Moreover, the benefits of polyandry appeared to depend on female characteristics, as revealed by an interaction between reproductive strategy and female length on reproductive success. Thus, all females did not benefit equally from mating with multiple males, which could explain why polyandry and monandry coexist.
Ekner-Grzyb, A. (2013) -
The aim of the study was to investigate relation between predators and prey, as well as parasites (pathogens) and hosts. As a result of the research it was determined the role of the lizards (Zootoca vivipara i Lacerta agilis) in transmission of tick-borne pathogens (Anaplasmataceae oraz Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.). Until recently these microorganisms were not found in the reptile tissues. In presented study it was described a co-infection between both analized bacteria in ticks (Ixodes ricinus), parasiting on L. agilis. It was demonstrated that adult males of common lizards were more vulnerably to predation risk, caused by great grey shrikes (Lanius excubitor), than females and the rest of the age classes of lizards. Moreover, the birds might affects demographic structure of lizard`s population. Thanks to correlation, obtained during a comparison of individual morphological traits of the lizards, it becomes possible to estimate a mass of hunted prey on the basis of measurements of particular parts of incomplete or dried lizard`s body, found in pellets or larder. It was turned out that predator pressure, estimated on the basis of autotomy experienced have significant impact on speed mean of sand lizard. However, parasites load did not influence on locomotor performance of the study reptiles. Moreover, presented study indicated that a difference in arrangement of postnasalia and frenale scales are frequently deviated from the typical arrangement and can not be taken into acount as a taxonomical trait, during determination of both analysed lizards.
Ekner, A. & Majláth, I. & Majláthová, V. & Hromada, M. & Bona, M. & Antczak, M. & Bogaczyk, M. & Tryjanowski, P. (2008) -
The study was carried out in extensive farmland area near the town of Odolanów, Poland. During two breeding seasons (April-May, 2006-2007) lizards were counted on transect routes and captured by hand or by noosing. In total, 123 specimens of L. agilis and 153 specimens of Z. vivipara were captured. The proportion of males to females wasn.t differed from the theoretical 1:1 ratio. Almost half of between all morphological traits, i.e. males were shorter, lighter, but had a bigger head. In common lizards significant sex specific differences were detected only in body length, i.e. females were longer. All of the morphological traits were highly inter-correlated.
Endler, F.G. & Scholz, F. (1821) -
Engel, E. & Gassert, F. & Proess, R. (2007) -
The present distribution atlas summarizes the knowledge of the reptile fauna in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The actual (after 2000) and historical distribution of the 6 species are presented in distribution maps (using squares of 5 x 5 km) and are discussed. Each species is described and information about its ecological requirements and its biology are given. Additionally, we mention the main threats to the species, give recommendations regarding their conservation an present a new Red List of the Reptile Fauna of Luxembourg
Engelmann, W.-E. & Kabisch, K. (1973) -
Serum proteins of Lacerta v. viridis, L. v. meridionalis, L. trilineata, L. agilis, L. vivipara, L. taurica, L. muralis, Ophisaurus apodus, and Anguis fragilis were separated by polyacrylamidae disc electrophoresis. Among the lacertids, Lacerta viridis and Lacerta trilineata show greater similarities. Ophisaurus apodus and Anguis fragilis are characterized by praealbumins.
Eplanova, G.V. (2008) -
Seasonal activity of three species of lizards (Lacertidae) — Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773), Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758, Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823), living in Samara Region, was analyzed. Periods of seasonal activity for E. arguta and L. agilis (on dates of the fi rst occurrence in the spring and last meeting before hibernation) are adduced according to the author’s observation in 2001—2006. Differences in period of activity of adult and young individuals are marked.
Eplanova, G.V. (2009) -
In this article the characteristics of reproductive biology of Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823) from the Middle Volga region are presented. Our researching resulted that viviparous lizard of that region had earlier birth date and shorter gestation period than in other regions. The long duration of newborn being in eggshell membranes was observed in some cases. The average fecundity of viviparous lizards was statistically higher or did not differ from those of the other parts of area. Newborn of Zootoca vivipara from the Middle Volga region weighed smaller than those from populations located in the north and had smaller body length than those from northern and eastern parts of its area.
Eplanova, G.V. & Kalmykova, O.G. & Bakiev, A.G. & Klenina, A.A. (2018) -
Occurrence of common lizards (Zootoca vivipara) in the steppe zone on the southern border of its range (site «Burtinskaya Steppe» of the Orenburg State Nature Reserve, Russia) is confined to habitat with azonal, pre- dominantly meadow, vegetation on the hydromorphic soils. Habitat and microclimatic conditions supporting the existence of this hygrophilous forest species in the study area are caused by the spring and a rivulet flowing from it. The habitat transformation is caused by fires, construction of tourist routes, and beaver activity. All lizard individuals within study area were captured on two plots with a total area of 0.004 km2. The estimated population density has reached 7.8 individuals/1000 m2. We have found no differences in size of individual’s body between studied Zootoca vivipara population and its populations from Penza region and Samara region which are also located at the edge of species range. Among females of this species studied in various parts of species’ range, females of the site «Burtinskaya Steppe» differ based on their higher fertility and smaller mass of newborns than in more northern populations. We noted earlier appearance of lizard offspring than in most regions of the Eastern European and Asian parts of the range. We demonstrated similarity of some parameters of reproductive biology (length of female’s body, timing of the offspring appearance, fertility, length and mass of newborn lizard) of the studied population with populations located in the Middle Volga Region.
Г. В. Епланова, О. Г. Калмыкова, А. Г. Бакиев & А. А. Кленина (2018) -
Обитание живородящей ящерицы в степной зоне на южной границе ареала (участок «Буртинская степь» заповедника «Оренбургский») приурочено к участкам с азональной (преимущественно лу- говой) приручьевой растительностью на гидроморфных почвах. Биотопические и микроклиматиче- ские условия для существования здесь лесного гигрофильного вида обусловлены наличием родника и вытекающего из него ручья. Трансформацию местообитаний вызывают пожары, обустройство ту- ристических маршрутов, деятельность бобров. На исследуемой территории все ящерицы сконцен- трированы на двух площадках общей площадью 0.004 км2. Ориентировочная плотность популяции, выявленная при количественном учете, достигает 7.8 ос./1000 м2. Сравнение размеров тела живоро- дящих ящериц из «Буртинской степи» с популяциями из Пензенской и Самарской областей, также находящихся на южной периферии ареала, существенных различий не выявило. Самки живородя�- щей ящерицы заповедного участка «Буртинская степь» отличаются от самок большинства популя�-� ций из других частей ареала большей плодовитостью, а детеныши меньшей массой, чем в регионах, расположенных севернее. Появление потомства у ящериц отмечено в более ранние сроки, чем в большинстве регионов восточноевропейской и азиатской частей ареала. Анализ данных по репро- дуктивной биологии (длина тела самок, участвующих в размножении, сроки появления потомства, плодовитость, размерные характеристики новорожденных) показал их сходство с аналогичными для ящериц из популяции Среднего Поволжья.
Epova, L.A. & Kuranova, V.N. & Yartsev, V.V. & Absalyamova, E.N. (2016) -
The present paper studies Zootoca vivipara populations from the low, medium and alpine zones of the Kuznetsky Alatau. By using skeletonchronology, the age of animals was determined, and the life longevity, sex-age structure, growth rate of bone and body were estimated. Males and females had the highest growth rates of bone and body until their second wintering, and then they decreased. Slow-growing specimens reach older ages. The body length of males and females in different age classes overlaps, and the oldest individuals were not necessarily the biggest ones. The maximum age of the males and females from the highland population was 8 years, while that of the females from the middle and low mountain populations was 6 years, and that of the males was 3 and 4 years, respectively. This tendency is connected with the decrease in the growth rate and the delayed puberty onset associated with the reduced activity season with increasing altitude.
Эпова Л.А., Куранова В.Н., Ярцев В.В., Абсалямова Е.Н. (2016) -
В настоящей работе исследованы популяции Zootoca vivipara из низко-, средне- и высокогорного поясов Кузнецкого Алатау. С помощью метода скелетохронологии определён возраст животных, а также оценены продолжительность жизни, половозрастная структура, темпы прироста кости и длины тела. Установлено, что у самцов и самок наибольшая скорость роста кости и тела наблюдается до второй зимовки, а затем уменьшается. Наибольшего возраста достигают медленнорастущие особи. Длина тела самцов и самок разных возрастных классов перекрывается, причём самые старые особи не самые крупные. Максимальная зарегистрированная продолжительность жизни самцов и самок высокогорной популяции - 8 лет, самок среднегорной и низкогорной популяций - 6 лет, самцов - 3 и 4 года соответственно. Такая тенденция связана со снижением скорости роста и более поздним возрастом наступления половой зрелости при сокращении сезона активности по мере продвижения в горы.
Erber, J. (1864) -
Erkinaro, E. (1974) -
Erve, F. van (2004) -
Erve, F. van (2008) -
Escala, M.C. & Perez Mendia, J.L. (1979) -
Eskinaro, E. (1974) -
Eversmann, E. (1834) -
Eversmann, E. (1844) -
Fabaian, S. & Giovanelli, M.M. & Lapini, L. & Morandini, C. & Zanetti, M. (2007) -
Faggyas, S. & Vajda, Z. (2011) -
Due to the geography of the lowlands in the Great Hungarian Plain between the River Tisza and Danube a large number of various wetland types exists there. These marshes, bogs, oxbow lakes and artificial wetlands such as channels, canals and fishponds provide ideal habitats for amphibians. In the Kiskunság area the road network is not very dense; nevertheless it still causes fragmentation by isolating the different habitat patches. For many migrating populations movement between the different habitats is impossible without crossing busy roads. With no human intervention massive amphibian road kills occurs at those sites. In many cases the erection of deflector walls with the installation of temporary bucket traps is the cheapest rescue operation. A permanent but more expensive solution is the installation of fixed guiding fences to lead the migrating animals through tunnels built under the road. The Kiskunság National Park Directorate initiated two construction programs with the help of EU founded (KEOP) projects. It has already installed 5 underpasses along highway No. 52 with more than 3 km long guiding fences. In the near future a new system of tunnels, namely ACO Climate tunnels will be built. Two different types - the so-called near-surface tunnels and the flush surface tunnels - are available to ensure that the best solution can be found even for complicated locations. The crucial transition zone to the tunnel is formed by the ‘ACO Entrance unit’ together with the adjacent ‘ACO Guide wall’ elements. The entrance is cone-shaped to guide the animals into the tunnel. In the framework of the planned project a total of 26 climate tunnels and about fourkilometer- long guiding fences will be installed on both sides of the road at three sites (between Ópusztaszer and Baks, near Balástya and near Mórahalom).
A Duna-Tisza köze földrajzi adottságainak köszönhetıen számos természetes és ember alkotta vizes élıhellyel rendelkezik: folyómedrek, lápos-mocsaras területek, szikes tavak, holtágak, kubikgödrök, csatornák, halastavak sokasága. A terület viszonylag nem túl sőrő közúthálózata is jelentısen izolálja egymástól a különbözı élıhelyeket, mely komoly problémát okoz azon fajok számára, melyek élıhelyük és szaporodó helyük között vándorlásra kényszerülnek. A Kiskunsági Nemzeti Park Igazgatóság több módszert is alkalmazott a vándorló kétéltő populációk megvédése érdekében: ideiglenes terelıket és a hozzá kapcsolódó vödörcsapdákat; illetve állandó, de jóval költségesebb módszert, a fix terelırendszereket és átjárókat.
A KNPI több veszélyes útszakaszon EU-s pályázat (KEOP) keretében kívánja véglegesen megoldani a kétéltőállomány védelmét. Ennek során az egyik pályázat segítségével az 52. számú fıút alatt három új átjáró került kialakításra, további két meglévı átereszt pedig a hozzájuk kapcsolódó terelıhálókkal sikerült aktívvá tenni.
Egy újabb pályázat keretében három helyszínen összesen 26 db átjáró és mintegy 4 km hosszan az út mindkét oldalán kialakítandó terelırendszer tervei készültek el: a Pusztaszeri Tájvédelmi Körzet Szeri-pusztát érintı részén Ópusztaszer és Baks között több mint három kilométer hosszan mintegy 20 átjáró kerül kialakításra, az 5-ös számú fıút alatt a Natura 2000-es balástyai Müller-székhez kötıdı kétéltőállományt négy, míg a mórahalmi Nagy-Széksós-tóhoz kötıdı kétéltő állományt két átjáró létesítésével igyekszünk megóvni. A projekt keretében egy Magyarországon új technológiát fogunk alkalmazni: ebben az esetben nem az aszfaltba mélyen besüllyesztett csırıl van szó, hanem az aszfalttal egy szintben lévı, kétéltőeknek és más kisebb testő állatok számára is kedvezı, átvilágított elemek beépítésére kerül sor (ACO Wildlife PRO: ACO Climate tunnel). Az alkalmazandó technológia elınye, hogy a terelıelemek és az átjárók is polimer betonból készülnek, így azok számos pozitív tulajdonságuk mellett várhatóan jóval hosszabb életőek lesznek a hagyományos mőanyag terelıknél.
Falck, J.W. (1953) -
Fallend, S. (2007) -
Fang, J.-J. & Tang, X.-R. (1983) -
Farren, A. & Prodöhl, P.A. & Laming, P. & Reid, N. (2010) -
The common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) is Ireland`s only native reptile, forming a key part of the island`s biodiversity. However, there is a general paucity of distributional and abundance data for the species. In this study, we collated incidental records for common lizard sightings to define the distribution of the species in Northern Ireland. Maximum entropy modelling was employed to describe species-habitat associations. The resulting predicted landscape favourability was used to evaluate the current status of the species based on the distribution of its maximum potential range in relation to the degree of fragmentation of remaining suitable habitat. In common with previous studies in the Republic of Ireland, sightings were highly clustered indicating under-recording, observer bias, and fragmentation of suitable habitat. A total of 98 records were collated from 1905 to 2009. The species was recorded in 63 (ca. 34%) of 186 × 10 km Northern Irish grid squares. Lizard occurrence was strongly and positively associated with landscapes dominated by heathland, bog and coastal habitats. The single best approximating model correctly classified the presence of lizards in 84.2% of cases. Upland heath, lowland raised bog and sand dune systems are all subject to Habitat Action Plans in Northern Ireland and are threatened by conversion to agriculture, afforestation, invasive species encroachment and infrastructural development. Consequently, remaining common lizard populations are likely to be small, isolated and highly fragmented. Establishment of an ecological network to preserve connectivity of remaining heath and bog will not only benefit remaining common lizard populations but biodiversity in general.
Fedorov, A.N. & Fedorova, L.V. & Grechko, V.V. & Ryabinin, D.M. & Sheremet`eva, V.A. & Bannikova, A.A. & Lomov, A.A. & Ryskov, A.P. & Darevsky, I.S. (1999) -
A specially optimized restriction analysis of
highly repetitive DNA elements, called DNA taxonprint,
was applied for phylogenetic study of primates and lizards.
It was shown that electrophoretic bands of DNA
repeats revealed by the taxonprint technique have valuable
properties for molecular systematics. Approximately
half of taxonprint bands (TB) are invariable and
do not disappear from the genomes during evolution or
change spontaneously. Presumably these invariable
bands are restriction fragments of dispersed DNA repeats.
Another group represents variable taxonprint
bands that differ even between closely related species.
These variable bands are probably represented by tandem
DNA repeats and could be used as species-specific
markers. It was shown that taxonprint bands are independent
characters since the appearance of a new taxonprint
band does not change the previous band pattern.
Phylogenetic reconstruction carried out on taxonprint data
demonstrated that this approach could be of general utility
for molecular systematics and species identification.
Fejérváry, G.J. (1923) -
Fejervary, G.J. v. (1909) -
Fejervary, G.J. v. (1917) -
Fejervary, G.J. von (1920) -
Feldmeier, S. & Schmidt, B.R. & Zimmermann, N.E. & Veith, M. & Ficetola, G.F. & Lötters, S. (2020) -
Aim: Climate change is expected to cause mountain species to shift their ranges to higher elevations. Due to the decreasing amounts of habitats with increasing eleva tion, such shifts are likely to increase their extinction risk. Heterogeneous mountain topography, however, may reduce this risk by providing microclimatic conditions that can buffer macroclimatic warming or provide nearby refugia. As aspect strongly influences the local microclimate, we here assess whether shifts from warm southexposed aspects to cool north-exposed aspects in response to climate change can compensate for an upward shift into cooler elevations. Location: Switzerland, Swiss Alps. Methods: We built ensemble distribution models using high-resolution climate data for two mountain-dwelling viviparous ectotherms, the Alpine salamander and the Common lizard, and projected them into various future scenarios to gain insights into distributional changes. We further compared elevation and aspect (northness) of current and predicted future locations to analyse preferences and future shifts. Results: Future ranges were consistently decreasing for the lizard, but for the salamander they were highly variable, depending on the climate scenario and threshold rule. Aspect preferences were elevation-dependent: warmer, south-exposed microclimates were clearly preferred at higher compared to lower elevations. In terms of presence and future locations, we observed both elevational upward shifts and northward shifts in aspect. Under future conditions, the shift to cooler north-exposed aspects was particularly pronounced at already warmer lower elevations. Main conclusions: For our study species, shifts in aspect and elevation are complementary strategies to mitigate climatic warming in the complex mountain topography. This complements the long-standing view of elevational upward shift being their only option to move into areas with suitable future climate. High-resolution climate data are critical in heterogeneous environments to identify microrefugia and thereby improving future impact assessments of climate change.
Fellenberg, W. (1983) -
Feng, Y. & Zhao, W.G. (2010) -
Observation and dissection of the urogenital system of an adult Lacerta vivipara was conducted.The results showed that:the excretory system was composed of kidney,ureter and cloaca,the kidney on the left side of the body was bigger than the one on the right side;the reproductive system of adult male L.vivipara was composed of the testis,spermaduct,epididymis,and hemipenis;the left spermary of the male was bigger and slightly closer to the head than the right spermary.The reproductive system of the adult female was composed of an ovary and oviduct.The size of the ovary on the left side of the body was the same as the one on the right side,whereas the left ovary was higher than the right one.During the reproductive period,the L.vivipara`s sex gland became obviously larger than the same sex gland after the reproductive period.Besides,the reproductive system of L.vivipara was similar to these of other oviparous and ovoviviparous lizards.
Ferri, V. (1993) -
A starting point for this work was the intention of making a comparison between the present herpeto-faunistic situation in a precise piace, «Valle di Nom> in the west of Trentino, and that of the last century, as outlined in the works of Edoardo De Betta (1822-1896), the illustrious naturalist from the same piace. The data collected after three years of field research, bibliographic verification, inspection of public and private herpetological collections and interviews with local people and environmental operators, reveal that substantial changes have taken place since the research of Edoardo De Betta. The number of the present species is reduced -15 species remain out of the 21 mentioned in the past (DE BETTA, 1852, 1857, 1885) - and the condition of the various populations appears to be seriously compromised. This situation is likely to be connected to the numerous environmental changes happened in this Valley: forest and pasture situated on tablelands and geologica! terraces and large natural moist zones in the last century; extended zones used for fruit-growing (apple-trees) up to a height of 1000 m, reclamation of land and direct contro! of the irrigation network today.
Fischer, K. (1996) -
Fish, A.C.M. (2016) -
An eight-week study in open areas of Collyweston Great Wood and Eastern Hornstocks NNR utilised 120 coverboards laid in groups of 20 with alternating felt and black corrugated roof sheeting construction materials. Adult slow-worms (Anguis fragilis) showed no significant preference for lying beneath coverboards of either material, but juvenile slow-worms were significantly more likely to be found beneath felt and common lizards (Zootoca vivipara) were significantly more likely to be found basking on corrugated roof sheeting. Numbers of A. fragilis fluctuated significantly week on week, and more slow-worms were found during the afternoon than during mornings. The significance of these results is discussed with particular reference to the importance of considering construction materials, time of sampling and weather conditions when planning surveys of reptiles utilising coverboards.
Fitch, H.S. (1970) -
Fitze, P.S. & Cote, J. & Clobert, J. (2006) -
Fitze, P.S. & Cote, J. & Clobert, J. (2010) -
Recent studies indicate that directional female mate choice and order-dependent female mate choice importantly contribute to non-random mating patterns. In species where females prefer larger sized males, disentangling different hypotheses leading to non-random mating patterns is especially difficult, given that male size usually correlates with behaviours that may lead to non-random mating (e.g. size-dependent emergence from hibernation, male fighting ability). Here we investigate female mate choice and order-dependent female mate choice in the polygynandrous common lizard (Lacerta vivipara). By sequentially presenting males in random order to females, we exclude non-random mating patterns potentially arising due to intra-sexual selection (e.g. male–male competition), trait-dependent encounter probabilities, trait-dependent conspicuousness, or trait-dependent emergence from hibernation. To test for order-dependent female mate choice we investigate whether the previous mating history affects female choice. We show that body size and body condition of the male with which a female mated for the first time were bigger and better, respectively, than the average body size and body condition of the rejected males. There was a negative correlation between body sizes of first and second copulating males. This indicates that female mate choice is dependent on the previous mating history and it shows that the female’s choice criteria are non-static, i.e. non-directional. Our study therefore suggests that context-dependent female mate choice may not only arise due to genotype-environment interactions, but also due to other female mating strategies, i.e. order-dependent mate choice. Thus context-dependent female mate choice might be more frequent than previously thought.
Fitze, P.S. & Cote, J. & Martinez-Rica, J.P. & Clobert, J. (2008) -
Both intra- and inter-sexual selection may crucially determine a male’s fitness. Their interplay, which has rarely been experimentally investigated, determines a male’s optimal reproductive strategy and thus is of fundamental importance to the understanding of a male’s behaviour. Here we investigated the relative importance of intra- and inter-sexual selection for male fitness in the common lizard. We investigated which male traits predict a male’s access to reproduction allowing for both selective pressures and comparing it with a staged mating experiment excluding all types of intra-sexual selection. We found that qualitatively better males were more likely to reproduce and that sexual selection was two times stronger when allowing for both selective pressures, suggesting that inter- and intra-sexual selection determines male fitness and confirming the existence of multi-factorial sexual selection. Consequently, to optimize fitness, males should trade their investment between the traits, which are important for inter- and intra-sexual selection.
Fitze, P.S. & Galliard, J.-F. le (2008) -
Modern sexual selection theory indicates that reproductive costs rather than the operational sex ratio predict the intensity of sexual selection. We investigated sexual selection in the polygynandrous common lizard Lacerta vivipara. This species shows male aggression, causing high mating costs for females when adult sex ratios (ASR) are male-biased. We manipulated ASR in 12 experimental populations and quantified the intensity of sexual selection based on the relationship between reproductive success and body size. In sharp contrast to classical sexual selection theory predictions, positive directional sexual selection on male size was stronger and positive directional selection on female size weaker in female-biased populations than in male-biased populations. Thus, consistent with modern theory, directional sexual selection on male size was weaker in populations with higher female mating costs. This suggests that the costs of breeding, but not the operational sex ratio, correctly predicted the strength of sexual selection.
Fitze, P.S. & Galliard, J.-F. le (2011) -
Measuring the intensity of sexual selection is of fundamental importance to the study of sexual dimorphism, population dynamics, and speciation. Several indices, pools of individuals, and fitness proxies are used in the literature, yet their relative performances are strongly debated. Using 12 independent common lizard populations, we manipulated the adult sex ratio, a potentially important determinant of the intensity of sexual selection at a particular time and place. We investigated differences in the intensity of sexual selection, as estimated using three standard indices of sexual selection - the standardized selection gradient (b_), the opportunity of selection (I ), and the Bateman gradient (bss)-calculated for different pools of individuals and different fitness proxies.We show that results based on estimates of I were the opposite of those derived from the other indices, whereas results based on estimates of b_ were consistent with predictions derived from knowledge about the species’ mating system. In addition, our estimates of the strength and direction of sexual selection depended on both the fitness proxy used and the pool of individuals included in the analysis. These observations demonstrate inconsistencies in distinct measures of sexual selection and underscore the need for caution when comparing studies and species.
Fitze, P.S. & Galliard, J.-F. le & Federici, P. & Richard, M. & Clobert, J. (2005) -
The optimal number of mate partners for females rarely coincides with that for males, leading to a potential sexual conflict over multiple-partner mating. This suggests that the population sex ratio may affect multiple-partner mating and thus multiple paternity. We investigate the relationship between multiple paternity and the population sex ratio in the polygynandrous common lizard (Lacerta vivipara). In six populations the adult sex ratio was biased toward males, and in another six populations the adult sex ratio was biased toward females, the latter corresponding to the average adult sex ratio encountered in natural populations. In males the frequency and the degree of polygyny were lower in male-biased populations, as expected if competition among males determines polygyny. In females the frequency of polyandry was not different between treatments, and polyandrous females produced larger clutches, suggesting that polyandry might be adaptive. However, in male-biased populations females suffered from reduced reproductive success compared to female-biased populations, and the number of mate partners increased with female body size in polyandrous females. Polyandrous females of male-biased populations showed disproportionately more mating scars, indicating that polyandrous females of male-biased populations had more interactions with males and suggesting that the degree of multiple paternity is controlled by male sexual harassment. Our results thus imply that polyandry may be hierarchically controlled, with females controlling when to mate with multiple partners and male sexual harassment being a proximate determinant of the degree of multiple paternity. The results are also consistent with a sexual conflict in which male behaviors are harmful to females.
Fitze, P.S. & Gonzalez-Jimena, V. & San-Jose, L.M. & Heulin, B. & Sinervo, B. (2014) -
Genetic polymorphism can be maintained over time by negative frequency-dependent (FD) selection induced by Rock-paper-scissors (RPS) social systems. RPS games produce cyclic dynamics, and have been suggested to exist in lizards, insects, isopods, plants, and bacteria. Sexual selection is predicted to accentuate the survival of the future progeny during negative FD survival selection. More specifically, females are predicted to select mates that produce progeny genotypes that exhibit highest survival during survival selection imposed by adult males. However, no empirical evidence demonstrates the existence of FD sexual selection with respect to fitness payoffs of genetic polymorphisms. Here we tested this prediction using the common lizard Zootoca vivipara, a species with three male color morphs (orange, white, yellow) that exhibit morph frequency cycles. In a first step we tested the congruence of the morph frequency change with the predicted change in three independent populations, differing in male color morph frequency and state of the FD morph cycle. Thereafter we ran standardized sexual selection assays in which we excluded alternative mechanisms that potentially induce negative FD selection, and we quantified inter-sexual behavior. The patterns of sexual selection and the observed behavior were in line with context-dependent female mate choice and male behavior played a minor role. Moreover, the strength of the sexual selection was within the magnitude of selection required to produce the observed 3–4-year and 6–8 year morph frequency cycles at low and high altitudes, respectively. In summary, the study provides the first experimental evidence that underpins the crucial assumption of the RPS games suggested to exist in lizards, insects, isopods, and plants; namely, that sexual selection produces negative-FD selection. This indicates that sexual selection, in our study exert by females, might be a crucial driver of the maintenance of genetic polymorphisms.
Fitze, P.S. & San-Jose, L.M. & Meylan, S. & Isaksoon, C. & Andersson, S. & Rossi, S.M. & Clobert, J. (2009) -
Under chronic stress, carotenoid-based colouration has often been shown to fade. However, the ecological and physiological mechanisms that govern colouration still remain largely unknown. Colour changes may be directly induced by the stressor (for example through reduced carotenoid intake) or due to the activation of the physiological stress response (PSR, e.g. due to increased blood corticosterone concentrations). Here, we tested whether blood corticosterone concentration affected carotenoid-based colouration, and whether a trade-off between colouration and PSR existed. Using the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara), we correlatively and experimentally showed that elevated blood corticosterone levels are associated with increased redness of the lizard`s belly. In this study, the effects of corticosterone did not depend on carotenoid ingestion, indicating the absence of a trade-off between colouration and PSR for carotenoids. While carotenoid ingestion increased blood carotenoid concentration, colouration was not modified. This suggests that carotenoid-based colouration of common lizards is not severely limited by dietary carotenoid intake.
Together with earlier studies, these findings suggest that the common lizard`s carotenoid-based colouration may be a composite trait, consisting of fixed (e.g. genetic) and environmentally elements, the latter reflecting the lizard`s PSR.
Fitzinger, L.I. (1843) -
Fitzinger, L.J. (1824) -
Fjellström, J. (2018) -
The use of Artificial Cover Objects (ACOs) for inventorying and monitoring of reptile diversity has become increasingly common, though few studies have investigated how occurrence and sampling success (encounters per ACO per day) varies with environmental factors when using ACOs. This study is based on data from Sandsjöbacka ecoduct and its surroundings in southwestern Sweden, where there is an ongoing monitoring program. Sixty-five plywood coverboards the first year and 15 more the next year were placed in a system of points along transects and checked 22 times (1595 shelter checks) between the year 2017 and 2018. These counts were combined with vegetation analyses and complemented with data of ambient temperature from SMHI, the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. A total of 129 reptiles belonging to six species was found: grass snake (Natrix natrix), smooth snake (Coronella austriaca), sand lizard (Lacerta agilis), viviparous lizard (Zootoca vivipara), slowworm (Anguis fragilis) and adder (Vipera berus). There was no correlation between temperature and sampling success. DFA revealed a significant discrimination between ACOs with and without reptiles, and two of eight vegetation variables, proportion of shrubs and proportion of bare ground, were best at separating the two groups. Bare ground tended to have a negative effect on reptile occurrence, while the tendency for shrubs was the opposite. Most observations (81% of all reptiles) and encounter rates (0.065 counts per ACO per day versus 0.081 totally) were associated with slow worm (European glass lizard), and therefore the data mainly reflect activity of this species.
Flechoso, M.F. & Morales, J. & Lizana, M. & González, I. (2015) -
Fodere, F.E. (1821) -
Fons, R. (1975) -
Font, E. & Carazo, P. & Pérez i de Lanuza, G. & Barbosa, D. (2010) -
Foucart, T. (2015) -
Dans son Historia Animalium en 343 av. J.C., Aristote proposait déjà deux critères qui continuent d’être les bases fondamentales de notre compréhension de la diversité des modes de reproduction : l’origine des nutriments des embryons (lécitotrophie vs. matrotrophie) et le mode de parition (oviparité vs. viviparité). Depuis plusieurs décennies la compréhension de la transition évolutive vers la viviparité a attiré un intérêt scientifique considérable. En effet les analyses phylogénétiques récentes reconnaissent une évolution indépendante de la viviparité dans plus de 150 lignées de vertébrés dont au moins 115 concernent uniquement le taxon des reptiles squamates actuels (lézards, serpents et amphisbènes). Les lignées présentant une transition évolutive de l’oviparité à la viviparité chez les squamates se retrouvent généralement associées aux climats froids, mais pas uniquement. Les explications proposées pour ce patron reposent sur le contrôle comportemental de la température de développement chez les femelles gestantes, offrant ainsi des températures plus favorables que celles des sites de ponte situés sous la surface du sol. Durant cette thèse doctorale nous avons étudié une espèce à reproduction bimodale (Zootoca vivipara) chez qui coexistent des populations ovipares et vivipares disjointes. Ce contexte nous a permis de comparer les modes reproducteurs en minimisant les biais phylogénétiques. Nous avons pu mettre en évidence et quantifier différents coûts « potentiels » de la reproduction (énergétique, contrainte volumique, phénotype des nouveau-nés) et certains bénéfices (phénologie et performance des nouveau-nés) associés à la régulation maternelle du développement. Nos résultats nous amènent à discuter des différentes pressions de sélection s’exerçant sur la durée de rétention des embryons, dont les directions seraient opposées et/ou dont l’intensité serait variable au cours du développement embryonnaire. Dans ce schéma, la viviparité ne devrait être favorisée que dans des contextes plus contraignants et où les bénéfices thermiques compensent les coûts de prolongation de la rétention. Ce contexte sélectif aurait abouti chez les squamates à l’existence de deux modalités reproductives avec entre elles une instabilité évolutive des états intermédiaires.
Foucart, T. & Heulin, B. & Lourdais, O. (2017) -
We examined the possible interaction between reproductive effort and embryonic stages at oviposition in oviparous form of the lizard Zootoca vivipara. Our results reveal that the percentage of total embryonic development time (%TEDT) reached at oviposition is negatively correlated to clutch size (adjusted to maternal body size). We found no influence of reproductive burden of female (relative clutch mass, RCM) on %TEDT. The significant effect of fecundity supports the hypothesis that a resource limitation such as oxygen may exist for developing embryos in oviducts. The absence of RCM effect suggests that the available space (abdominal burdening of the mother) does not limit the embryonic stages at oviposition.
Foucart, T. & Heulin, B. & Lourdais, O. (2018) -
Early life stages are particularly vulnerable to environmental perturbations. Embryonic thermal sensitivity might be a driving force in the emergence of prenatal parental care, such as maternal thermoregulation. Viviparity has emerged on repeated occasions among squamate reptiles, and two main evolutionary hypotheses based on maternal thermoregulation have been proposed to explain these transitions, namely the ‘cold climate hypothesis’ and the ‘maternal manipulation hypothesis’. Squamate embryos typically face important daily temperature fluctuations either in the nest or within the maternal body, but most experimental studies on development have relied on constant temperature. Therefore, we may have only limited insight on the effect of maternal thermoregulation on embryo development. We manipulated thermal conditions to compare the influence of a typical maternal temperature cycle (M) or nest thermal conditions (N) both during gravidity and during incubation in the oviparous form of a reproductively bimodal squamate (Zootoca vivipara). Although the two treatments had a similar mean temperature, we found that M treatment accelerated development, notably when applied during gravidity. Only limited effects were found when considering offspring phenotype and performance. Overall, our results suggest that small changes in thermal conditions can have a strong impact on reproductive phenology and might be a proximate target in the emergence of egg retention and, ultimately, of viviparity. Further studies are required to address long-lasting effects of maternal thermoregulation on offspring performance.
Foucart, T. & Lourdais, O. & De Nardo, D.F. & Heulin, B. (2014) -
Examination of the selective forces behind the transition from oviparity to viviparity in vertebrates must include an understanding of the relative energy costs of the two reproductive modes. However, interspecific comparisons of reproductive mode are confounded by numerous other inherent differences among the species. Therefore, we compared oxygen consumption, as a reflection of energy costs, during reproduction in oviparous and viviparous females of the reproductively bimodal lizard Zootoca vivipara (Jaquin 1787). Female oxygen consumption progressively increased over the course of reproduction, peaking just prior to parition when it was 46% (oviparous form) and 82% (viviparous form) higher than it was at the pre-reproductive stage. Total increase in oxygen consumption (TIOC) during the pre-ovulation period was not different between the reproductive modes. Conversely, post-ovulation TIOC was more than three times higher in viviparous females, reflecting a dramatic increase in embryonic metabolism as well as maternal metabolic costs of pregnancy (MCP). MCP accounted for 22% of total metabolism in viviparous females, whereas it was negligible in oviparous females. Our results demonstrate that egg retention through the first third of development, as is typical of most oviparous squamates, entails minimal maternal energy demand, while extending retention imposes much greater metabolic constraints. Selection for transition from oviparity to viviparity must therefore provide benefits that outweigh not only the added burden associated with prolonged embryonic retention, but also the substantial additional energy costs that are incurred.
Fraipont, M. de & Clobert, J. & John-Alder, H. & Meylan, S. (2000) -
1. There is growing evidence that dispersal is highly phenotypically plastic, i.e. that dispersal is condition-dependent. In the common lizard, dispersal has even been shown to be influenced by the maternal environment during pregnancy. Juveniles in good condition or issued from mothers in good condition disperse earlier or in higher numbers.
2. We hypothesized that plasma corticosterone was the proximate mechanism by which condition and dispersal are linked, and tested this by manipulating the level of circulating corticosterone in pregnant females of the common lizard.
3. After parturition, we measured juvenile attractiveness towards the mother and juvenile dispersal of corticosterone (B) and placebo (P) implanted females.
4. Offspring of B females did disperse in lower number than those of P females. B offspring were also more attracted by the mother`s odour than P offspring.
5. In quite a few cases, the behavioural response of juveniles was dependent on the interaction between the hormonal treatment and the mother snout–vent length or condition (body weight corrected for snout–vent length).
6. Corticosterone constitutes therefore one of the proximate mechanisms involved in the prenatal control of juvenile dispersal in this species. Along with other results, it is proposed that prenatal control of dispersal has evolved in order to avoid competition between mothers and their offspring.
Frank, R. & Edelman, M. (2009) -
Frank, R. & Edelman, M. (2015) -
Franke, E. (2000) -
Between 1987 and 1999, 97 locality records of the viviparous lizard (Zootoca vivipara) have been registered in the region of Stralsund. Particular attention was paid to localities situated within a 140 square kilometers large area which is intensively used agriculturally in a large scale, in order to evaluate to which extent such places still provide suitable habitats for this species. It turned out that here the occurrence is largely depending from extensively used areas.
Providing artificial basking places in spring and autumn proved to be an effective, timesaving measure for the recordings, because they allow to manipulate a suitable microclimate within small-scaled areas. Multiple walks through the habitats during various seasons or times of the day proved to be unsuitable for estimating population sizes.
Phenological data are listed. Remarkable are three records from the month of February.
Observations concerning the lizard`s sensitivity for disturbances and its flight distances are given, and the vulnerability of this species is discussed.
Frauenfeld, G. (1854) -
Fretey, J. (1986) -
Freytag, G.E. (1959) -
Funke, O. (1999) -
Gabirot, M. & López, P. & Martin, J. & Fraipont, M. de & Heulin, B. & Sinervo, B. & Clobert, J. (2008) -
In spite of the importance of chemoreception in intraspecific communication of lizards, only a few studies have examined chemical composition of secretions of lizards. The secretion of the femoral glands of adult male lizards Lacerta vivipara contains a relatively low number (18) of lipophilic compounds in comparison with other related lacertid lizards. These compounds were identified on the basis of mass spectra, obtained by GC-MS. Chemicals included ten steroids (mainly cholesterol) and four carboxylic acids between n-C12 and n-C18, and minor components such as squalene, α-tocopherol, and two waxy esters, which may contribute to avoid oxidation of other lipophilic components in the fairly humid environments occupied by this lizard. Secretions of adult males from oviparous and viviparous populations did not differ in the numbers and quality of chemical compounds, but there were some differences in the relative proportion of some compounds. Males from oviparous populations had lower proportions of hexadecanoic acid and cholestan-3-one, and higher proportions of squalene than viviparous males. These differences might be explained by either small genetic differences between types or due to different microclimatic conditions in the original populations.
Gachet, H. (1832) -
Galan, P. (1983) -
Galan, P. (2005) -
The main threats to the amphibians and reptiles of Galicia (NW Spain) are studied in relation to the information obtained during the last 30 years (1975-2005). The most negative factors affecting amphibians and reptiles in this territory are the human alteration of both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, and the introduction of exotic species (mainly freshwater crustaceans and fishes). These menaces have led to the extinction of some Galician populations of amphibian and reptiles. Other factors, such as emergent diseases, can be very important, but they have not been studied yet. This last threat is one of the main causes for the global amphibian decline. The recent status of the Galician herpetofauna is also analysed. According to the main population declines and areal reduction observed, the most endangered amphibian species is Pelobates cultripes. Other amphibians, such as Chioglossa lusitanica, Rana iberica and Rana temporaria, are also importantly put at risk. The most endangered reptile species is Emys orbicularis. The restricted and limited Galician populations of Lacerta vivipara, Chalcides bedriagai and Vipera latasti are also threatened. The available information for other reptile species (Blanus cinereus, Psammodromus hispanicus, etc.), is still very scarce, but it is possible that their situation is also precarious. The particular status of the insular populations of amphibians and reptiles from the islands off the Galician coast is also analysed.
Galán, P. & Vázquez-Graña, R. & Rodríguez-Lamela, F. & Ferreiro, R. (2010) -
Gállego-Castejón, L. & López, S. (1983) -
Galliard, J.-F. le & Fitze, P.S. & Ferrière, R. & Clobert, J. (2005) -
The adult sex ratio (ASR) is a key parameter of the demography of human and other animal populations, yet the causes of variation in ASR, how individuals respond to this variation, and how their response feeds back into population dynamics remain poorly understood. A prevalent hypothesis is that ASR is regulated by intrasexual competition, which would cause more mortality or emigration in the sex of increasing frequency. Our experimental manipulation of populations of the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) shows the opposite effect. Male mortality and emigration are not higher under male-biased ASR. Rather, an excess of adult males begets aggression toward adult females, whose survival and fecundity drop, along with their emigration rate. The ensuing prediction that adult male skew should be amplified and total population size should decline is supported by long-term data. Numerical projections show that this amplifying effect causes a major risk of population extinction. In general, such an ‘‘evolutionary trap’’ toward extinction threatens populations in which there is a substantial mating cost for females, and environmental changes or management practices skew the ASR toward males.
Galliard, J.-F. le, & Fitze, P.S: & Cotre, J. & Massot, M. & Clobert, J. (2005) -
Sex allocation theory predicts that facultative maternal investment in the rare sex should be favoured by natural selection when breeders experience predictable variation in adult sex ratios (ASRs). We found significant spatial and predictable interannual changes in local ASRs within a natural population of the common lizard where the mean ASR is female-biased, thus validating the key assumptions of adaptive sex ratio models. We tested for facultative maternal investment in the rare sex during and after an experimental perturbation of the ASR by creating populations with female-biased or male-biased ASR. Mothers did not adjust their clutch sex ratio during or after the ASR perturbation, but produced sons with a higher body condition in male-biased populations. However, this differential sex allocation did not result in growth or survival differences in offspring. Our results thus contradict the predictions of adaptive models and challenge the idea that facultative investment in the rare sex might be a mechanism regulating the population sex ratio.
Galliard, J.F. le (2003) -
Galliard, J.F. le & Bris, M. le & Clobert, J. (2003) -
1. Locomotor impairment and shift in thermal preferences during gestation have been documented in some lizards, but few studies have investigated their timing. Here, endurance capacity, sprint speed and selected body temperature of gravid females of the viviparous lizard Lacerta vivipara (Jacquin) were measured weekly before and after parturition.
2. Significant temporal variation of endurance and sprint speed was detected. A marked decrease in locomotor abilities occurred 2 weeks before parturition (c. 35% for endurance and 25% for sprint speed). A rapid recovery was observed a few days after parturition for endurance, while sprint speed recovered more slowly.
3. A physical impairment due to body mass was detected for endurance capacity, but not for sprint speed. The recovery of locomotor abilities after parturition was independent of the intensity of reproductive investment. Mass-independent variation in locomotor performances might be explained by physiological consequences of reproduction independent of the physical burden.
4. Females basking under laboratory conditions selected low body temperatures during the final month of gestation (29•8 °C ± 0•12 SE) and a drastic increase occurred in the few days following parturition (33•4 °C ± 0•13 SE).
5. These results call for a more detailed investigation of the mechanisms underlying trade-offs between reproduction, locomotion and thermoregulation in lizards.
Galliard, J.F. le & Clobert, J. & Ferrière, R. (2004) -
Strong evidence for a genetic basis of variation in physical performance has accumulated. Considering one of the basic tenets of evolutionary physiology--that physical performance and darwinian fitness are tightly linked--one may expect phenotypes with exceptional physiological capacities to be promoted by natural selection. Why then does physical performance remain considerably variable in human and other animal populations? Our analysis of locomotor performance in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) demonstrates that initial endurance (running time to exhaustion measured at birth) is indeed highly heritable, but natural selection in favour of this trait can be unexpectedly weak. A manipulation of dietary conditions unravels a proximate mechanism explaining this pattern. Fully fed individuals experience a marked reversal of performance within only one month after birth: juveniles with low endurance catch up, whereas individuals with high endurance lose their advantage. In contrast, dietary restriction allows highly endurant neonates to retain their locomotor superiority as they age. Thus, the expression of a genetic predisposition to high physical performance strongly depends on the environment experienced early in life.
Galliard, J.F. le & Cote, J. & Fitze, P.S. (2008) -
Male mating behaviors harmful to females have been described in a wide range of species. However, the direct and indirect fitness consequences of harmful male behaviors have been rarely quantified for females and their offspring, especially for long-lived organisms under natural conditions. Here, lifetime and intergenerational consequences of harmful male interactions were investigated in female common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) using field experiments. We exposed females to male harm by changing the population sex ratio from a normal female-biased to an experimental male-biased sex ratio during the first experimental year. Thereafter, females and their first generation of offspring were monitored during two additional years in a common garden with a female-biased sex ratio. We found strong immediate fitness costs and lower lifetime reproductive success in females subjected to increased male exposure. The immediate fitness costs were partly mitigated by direct compensatory responses after exposure to male excess, but not by indirect benefits through offspring growth, offspring survival, or mating success of offspring. These results support recent empirical findings showing that the direct costs of mating are not outweighed by indirect benefits.
Galliard, J.F. le & Ferriere, R. (2008) -
Hypothesis: One of the basic tenets of evolutionary physiology is that physical performances and fitness are tightly linked. Question: Are phenotypes with exceptional locomotor capacity strongly favoured by natural and sexual selection? Organism: A ground-dwelling, actively foraging and non-territorial lizard species, Lacerta vivipara. Methods: We analysed the relationship between morphology (body size and condition) and maximal endurance capacity in three age classes (juveniles, yearlings, and adult males). We then tested whether morphology and endurance capacity predicted variation in annual body growth, annual survival, and reproductive success. Results: The large variation in maximal endurance capacity observed at hatching has a genetic basis. Endurance capacity increased with body size in juveniles and with body condition in juveniles and yearlings. Endurance capacity was not correlated with annual body growth at any age class. Positive, directional viability selection on endurance capacity was detected for juveniles and yearlings, but not for adult males. Endurance capacity was weakly, positively correlated with male reproductive success. Natural selection in juveniles and sexual selection in adult males was non-linear and the strength of selection decelerated with endurance capacity. Conclusion: In the common lizard, selection on maximal performances is non-linear and varies between age classes. This pattern of weak and inconsistent selection could explain the maintenance of considerable genetic variation of locomotor performance within populations.
Galliard, J.F. le & Ferriere, R. & Clobert, J. (2003) -
Galliard, J.F. le & Ferriere, R. & Clobert, J. (2005) -
Galliard, J.F. le & Ferrière, R. & Clobert, J. (2005) -
The effects of food availability on life-history traits may be direct or delayed and may vary between the sexes. We evaluated the effects of dietary restriction early in life on growth and survival of male and female juveniles in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) and surveyed the literature on sex-specific sensitivity to the environment in vertebrates. Juvenile lizards were reared in the laboratory during one month following birth under full feeding or under dietary restriction. They were then released in two outdoor enclosures, where we compared growth and survival between treatments during one year. Low food availability early in life led to lower body growth in a direct, but not delayed, manner. The absence of compensatory growth in juveniles that experienced dietary restriction might be explained by their reduced competitiveness. Dietary restriction had a strongly negative, delayed effect on survival up to the age of one year that was mediated by selection against smaller individuals. Effects of dietary restriction were not sex-specific, as expected from the similar energetic requirements of male and female juveniles. Hence, food availability has long-lasting consequences on life-history traits that might influence population dynamics in this species.
Galliard, J.F. le & Marquis, O. & Massot, M. (2010) -
1. Demographic theory and empirical studies indicate that cohort variation in demographic traits has substantial effects on population dynamics of long-lived vertebrates but cohort effects have been poorly investigated in short-lived species.
2. Cohort effects were quantified in the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara Jacquin 1787), a shortlived ectothermic vertebrate, for body size, reproductive traits and age-specific survival with mark–recapture data collected from 1989 to 2005 in two wetlands. We assessed cohort variation and covariation in demographic traits, tested the immediate and delayed effects of climate conditions (temperature and rainfall), and predicted consequences for population growth.
3. Most demographic traits exhibited cohort variation, but this variation was stronger for juvenile growth and survival, sub-adult survival and breeding phenology than for other traits.
4. Cohort variation was partly explained by a web of immediate and delayed effects of climate conditions. Rainfall and temperature influenced distinct life-history traits and the periods of gestation and early juvenile life were critical stages for climate effects.
5. Cohort covariation between demographic traits was usually weak, apart from a negative correlation between juvenile and sub-adult body growth suggesting compensatory responses. An agestructured population model shows that cohort variation influences population growth mainly through direct numerical effects of survival variation early in life.
6. An understanding of cohort effects is necessary to predict critical life stages and climatic determinants of population dynamics, and therefore demographic responses to future climate warming.
Galliard, J.F. le & Massot, M. & Landys, M.M. & Meylan, S. & Clobert, J. (2006) -
To elucidate the developmental aspects of the evolution of sexual size dimorphism (SSD), an understanding of the sex-specific ontogeny of body size is critical. Here, we evaluate the relative importance of genetic and environmental determinants of SSD in juvenile common lizards (Lacerta vivipara). We examined the prenatal and post-natal effects of population density and habitat humidity on SSD, as well as the maternal effects of food availability, corticosterone level, humidity and heat regime during gestation. Analyses indicated strong prenatal and post-natal plasticity in body size per se and yielded three main results with respect to SSD. First, SSD in juvenile common lizards matches qualitatively the SSD observed in adults. Secondly, SSD was influenced by none of the prenatal factors investigated here, suggesting poor sex-biased maternal effects on offspring size. Thirdly, SSD was sensitive to post-natal habitat humidity, which positively affected growth rate more strongly in females than in males. Thus, natural variation in SSD in juvenile common lizards appears to be primarily determined by a combination of sexbiased genetic factors and post-natal conditions. We discuss the possibility that viviparity may constrain the evolution of sex-biased maternal effects on offspring size.
Galliard, J.F. le & Paquet, M. & Mugabo, M. (2015) -
Temperament traits are seen in many animal species, and recent evolutionary models predict that they could be maintained by heterogeneous selection. We tested this prediction by examining density-dependent selection in juvenile common lizards Zootoca vivipara scored for activity, boldness and sociability at birth and at the age of 1 year. We measured three key life-history traits (juvenile survival, body growth rate and reproduction) and quantified selection in experimental populations at five density levels ranging from low to high values. We observed consistent individual differences for all behaviours on the short term, but only for activity and one boldness measure across the first year of life. At low density, growth selection favoured more sociable lizards, whereas viability selection favoured less active individuals. A significant negative correlational selection on activity and boldness existed for body growth rate irrespective of density. Thus, behavioural traits were characterized by limited ontogenic consistency, and natural selection was heterogeneous between density treatments and fitness traits. This confirms that density-dependent selection plays an important role in the maintenance of individual differences in exploration-activity and sociability.
Galliard, J.F. le & Paquet, M. & Pantelic, Z. & Perret, S. (2011) -
The marking of small animals for long-term ecological studies requires unambiguous and permanent techniques that cause minimal harm. Toe-clipping is frequently used to identify small lizards in the field, but it has been suggested that passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) should be preferred. Here, we evaluate the costs and benefits of new miniature PIT tags to mark the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara). Our protocol enables permanent marking of lizards as small as 1.3 grams with maximal implantation success in the abdominal cavity. Tag injection caused no observable increase in plasma corticosterone levels over five days and no negative effects on long-term growth and survival. However, tag injection had negative effects on locomotor activity during at least 7 days, possibly implying pain. Continuous research to improve tag implantation is needed because negative effects may be caused by anaesthesia and injection rather the tag retention itself. This study demonstrates the utility of combining physiological, behavioural and life history measurements to assess marking stress and pain in animals.
Galliard, J.F.le & Rozen-Rechels, D. & Lecomte, A. & Demay, C. & Dupoué, A. Meylan, S. (2021) -
Thermoregulation is critical for ectotherms as it allows them to maintain their body temperature close to an optimum for ecological performance. Thermoregulation includes a range of behaviors that aim at regulating body temperature within a range centered around the thermal preference. Thermal preference is typically measured in a thermal gradient in fully-hydrated and post-absorptive animals. Short-term effects of the hydric environment on thermal preferences in such set-ups have been rarely quantified in dry-skinned ectotherms, despite accumulating evidence that dehydration might trade-off with behavioral thermoregulation. Using experiments performed under controlled conditions in climatic chambers, we demonstrate that thermal preferences of a ground-dwelling, actively foraging lizard (Zootoca vivipara) are weakly decreased by a daily restriction in free-standing water availability (less than 0.5°C contrast). The influence of air humidity during the day on thermal preferences depends on time of the day and sex of the lizard, and is generally weaker than those of of free-standing water (less than 1°C contrast). This shows that short-term dehydration can influence, albeit weakly, thermal preferences under some circumstances in this species. Environmental humidity conditions are important methodological factors to consider in the analysis of thermal preferences.
Garanin, V.I. (1983) -
Garcia-Adell, G. & Roca, V. (1988) -
Garcia-Diez, T. & González-Fernández, J.E. (2013) -
A first complete list of the reptile type specimens preserved in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC) of Ma-drid (updated until 15 July 2012) is provided. The collection houses a total of 319 type specimens representing 24 taxa belonging to 6 families and 12 genera. There are 22 taxa represented by primary types (19 holotypes, 2 neotypes and 1 lectotype) and at least one paratype, and only two taxa are exclusively represented by one secondary type (paratype). The collection is specially rich in Spanish endemisms. Special attention is deserved by the type series of many subspecies of Podarcis lilfordi described by A. Salvador and V. Pérez-Mellado. All type specimens are housed in the Herpetological collection except Blanus mariae and Psammodromus occidentalis type series and Psammodromus hispanicus (neotype) which are preserved in the DNA/Tissues Collection.
Garcia-Porta, J. & Irisarri, I. & Kirchner, M. & Rodríguez, A. & Kirchhof, S. & Brown, J.L. & MacLeod, A. & Turner, A.P. & Ahmadzadeh, F. & Albaladejo, G. & Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J. & Riva, I. de la & Fawzi, A. & Galán, P. & Göçmen, B. & Harris, D.J. & Jiménez-Robles, O. & Joger, U. & Jovanović Glavaš, O. & Karış, M. & Koziel, G. & Künzel, S. & Lyra, M. & Miles, D. & Nogales, M. & Oğuz, M.A. & Paf (2019) -
Climatic conditions changing over time and space shape the evolution of organisms at multiple levels, including temperate lizards in the family Lacertidae. Here we reconstruct a dated phylogenetic tree of 262 lacertid species based on a supermatrix relying on novel phylogenomic datasets and fossil calibrations. Diversification of lacertids was accompanied by an increasing disparity among occupied bioclimatic niches, especially in the last 10 Ma, during a period of progressive global cooling. Temperate species also underwent a genome- wide slowdown in molecular substitution rates compared to tropical and desert-adapted lacertids. Evaporative water loss and preferred temperature are correlated with bioclimatic parameters, indicating physiological adaptations to climate. Tropical, but also some popu- lations of cool-adapted species experience maximum temperatures close to their preferred temperatures. We hypothesize these species-specific physiological preferences may con- stitute a handicap to prevail under rapid global warming, and contribute to explaining local lizard extinctions in cool and humid climates.
Gavaud, J. (1983) -
Hibernation in Lacerta vivipara from Massif Central (1,000–1,200 m) lasts 6–7 months and is immediately followed by vitellogenesis, gestation, and parturition within a short period of time (May–August). Suppression of hibernation by maintaining females in active life (food and high temperatures) inhibits the resumption of ovarian growth in spring: i.e., the reproductive system remains indefinitely refractory to high temperatures. In order for vitellogenesis to be completed, females need to hibernate below S–10°C with sufficient duration (“amount of cold” thresholds). The prolongation of the exposure of females to low temperature beyond the minimal stay gradually improves their ability to complete vitellogenesis: The number of females responding increases, and the heat requirement for the onset of ovarian growth decreases.
Gavaud, J. (1985) -
Etude du déroulement du cycle sexuel normal, puis du cycle perturbé par la suppression de l`hibernation. Isolement, identification de la vitellogénine de L. vivipara et préparation d`un immunsérum spécifique. Etude in vivo de l`effet de différentes hormones stéroïdes sur l`induction de la synthèse de vittelogénine. Analyse de l`effet des facteurs de l`environnement. Evolution de la sensibilité du tissu ovarien à la FSH ovine in vivo chez des femelles qui n`hibernent pas et in vitro pendant l`hibernation et la vitellogenèse
Gavaud, J. (1986) -
An analysis of the development of the vitellogenic process following artificial hibernation in the lizard Lacerta vivipara was undertaken. For that purpose, organ weights (ovaries, oviducts, liver, fat bodies) and plasma concentrations of total proteins, calcium, and estrogens were monitored. The induction of the vitellogenic growth of 2-5 oocytes per ovary was characterized by a rapid increase in calcemia (from 2.4-2.6 mM to 4-10 mM), and in oviduct and liver weights. During the active and continuous phase of vitellus incorporation (congruent to 3 weeks, follicle diameter 1.6-2.0 mm to greater than 5 mm) the developments of ovaries and oviducts were positively correlated, liver weight and calcemia remained elevated (respectively, 1.2-2.2 times and 2.5-3.5 times the previtellogenic values). Ovulation was preceded by a significant rise in calcemia and followed by a decrease in liver weight, but no modification of oviduct mass. Plasma concentration in total proteins (50-60 mg/ml) was not modified during the entire process. Plasma estrogens were difficult to measure in this small species. Levels of estradiol-17 beta were very often below the assay sensitivity (less than 0.3-0.6 ng/ml), never above 2 ng/ml, and very variable among individuals. No correlation with vitellogenin production could be established. Therefore, the abilities of different ovarian steroids to induce vitellogenin synthesis were tested in vivo. To reduce the rise of plasma estradiol titer (observed during a 4-week experiment), the steroids were implanted in ovariectomized lizards for a short time (5 days). The vitellogenic response was assessed by measuring the distribution of the 32P radioactivity between the acidoprecipitable plasma fraction and the plasma vitellogenin recognized by the lizard antivitellogenin serum. Plasma titers of estradiol-17 beta were monitored. The estrone potencies could not be determined as this treatment involved an important rise in estradiol level. Progesterone, delta 4, testosterone, and 5 alpha-androstanediol were unable to stimulate vitellogenin synthesis. Estradiol-17 beta was the only effective steroid. It was further demonstrated that the estradiol-induced hypercalcemia, hyperproteinemia, and liver growth in ovariectomized lizards were dependent upon the total amount of estrogen injected.
Gavaud, J. (1991) -
Testicular activity in reptiles is controlled primarily by thermal and thermoperi-
odic factors; however, little is known about the relative contribution of daily heating and nightly
cooling in these processes. This question was addressed in the lizard Lacerta vivipara whose cycle
is characterized by a 6 month hibernation followed by a single spring spermiogenesis and a summer
spermatogenesis. From the autumnal equinox on, lizards were maintained under a constant 12L/
12D photoperiod and acclimated to different 24 hour thermoperiodic regimes. Treatments combined
a short or a long thermophase (2 or 6 hr basking) in alternation with either a warmer (19-21OC)
or a colder cryophase (3-7°C). Testicular activity was monitored by histological examination of
the testis and epididymis in late December and in early March. Heat provided daily during either
2 or 6 hour phases advanced spermiogenesis and spermiation by 3-4 months. Cryophase tempera-
tures had no significant effects on the date of onset of spermiogenesis whereas they greatly affected
its speed of completion. Thus, the full testicular cycle, from one spermatogenetic wave to the next,
was completed within 6 months under warmer cryophases alternating with either long or short
thermophases. In contrast, only part of the cycle was completed in lizards experiencing colder
cryophases since active spermiogenesis and spermiation were maintained for at least 2 months as
under natural conditions. The functional significance of heat and cold per 24 hour cycles in the
regulation of the testicular cycle is discussed.
A constant warm thermoperiod maintains ovarian quiescence in the lizard Lacerta vivipara, whereas a 4-month artificial hibernation rapidly induces synchronized vitellogenesis after transfer to warmth. The present study examined the possibility of a thermoperiodic regulation of the ovarian cycle and the formal properties of an internal temporal program. These questions were addressed using 24-hr thermoperiodic conditions that combined a long or a short thermophase (6 or 2 hr of basking) with a warm (19-21°C), a cool (5-15°C), or a cold (3-7°C) cryophase. Lizards were exposed to the natural photocycle or to LD 12:12. Occurrence and timing of vitellogenesis completion were monitored using immunodetection of plasma vitellogenin and laparotomies. Cold remained stimulatory when given intermittently with a 24-hr periodicity. However, under long-thermophase conditions, lizards responded poorly to cool cyrophases but fully to cold ones (72.7-100% vitellogenesis). Thus a certain amount of cold must be provided during each 24-hr cycle in order to be effective through the succession of thermocycles. Reduction of the daily heat input from 6 to 2 hr modulated the stimulating effects of cold cryophases: The median date for the beginning of vitellogenesis occurred 1 month earlier, but the number of responding females decreased from 100% to 40%. The thermoperiodic regulation of the ovarian cycle also relies upon a precise heat-cold balance per nycthemeral unit. This ensures the entrainment of an internal rhythm, since the timing of reproductive responses varies with the date of transfer from the inhibitory warm thermoperiod to the inducing thermoperiod (long thermophase, cold cryophase). At least half the females started vitellogenesis within 1-2 months after a late transfer (winter solstice) instead of 6 months after an early one (autumn equinox), and the median date for onset differed by 1 month between the two groups. However, autumn transfer was the only one to induce a group response in close agreement with the natural timing.
Histochemical identification of lipids was performed on frozen sections of ovary and liver throughout thermal-induced vitellogenesis in the lizard Lacerta vivipara. Two classes of lipids were identified in both organs: triglycerides and phospholipids. The former are in a fluid state (stained by Sudan Black B), neutral (Nile Blue method), and unsaturated (reduce Os04). The latter react to a dichromate-hematoxylin method and are acidic (Nile Blue method). Throughout vitellogenic growth, oocytes simultaneously accumulate triglyceride and phospholipids linked to polypeptide granules. Both types of lipid inclusions always remain distinct.
Gebhart, J. (2020) -
Geduly, O. (1923) -
Geisenheyner, L. (1888) -
Generani, M. & Canini, G. (1996) -
Since 1993 the Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali of Induno Olona coordinates the Amphibians and Reptiles` census in the Province of Varese, to improve the knowledge of its herpetofauna, the distribution of the various species, as well as the number of their populations. At present three species of Urodela, seven of Anura, one of Testudines, five of Sauria and five of Serpentes have been catalogued, Podarcis sicula and Zootoca vivipara are new to Varese Province.
Gentil, A. (1883) -
Gentilli, A. & Scali, S. (2008) -
Geraeds, R. (2015) -
Geraeds, R.P.G. (2001) -
Geraeds, R.P.G. (2012) -
The Meinweg National Park and the valley of the river Roer in the centre of the province of Limburg are both well known for their high ecological and landscape values. Both areas are part of the European network of nature reserves, Natura 2000. Even though each of the two areas has its unique and distinctive character, they are inextricably linked. Unfortunately, the ecological connections in the landscape between the Meinweg and the Roer valley have become disrupted. The article describes measures to optimise this connection between the areas, using the Common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) as a case in point. The landscape between the Meinweg and the Roer consists of meadows, fields, forests, brushwood and hedges, houses, farms, gas stations, garden centres, industrial estates and a camping site. The core of this area, between the city of Roermond and the border with Germany, is traversed by the Keulsebaan road. We investigated 500 m wide strips of land on both sides of this road for the presence of the Common lizard. The survey was held in late September and early October 2011. During this survey, Common lizards were spotted scattered around the area. Most animals were found in the Herkenbosscherbroek, in the southern part of the investigated area. The best habitats turned out to be slopes with brushwood or trees and forest margins with a high structural diversity. The connection between these two Nature 2000 areas can beoptimised in the following ways: by establishing a less intensive mowing regime on the slopes along roads and brooks; by planting trees or developing brushwood on slopes along roads; by creating open spaces at forest margins; by creating fauna passages with guiding fences under the Keulsebaan road. The best location to start these measurers is the Flinke Ven area. Not only the Common lizard, but also many other fauna and flora species will benefit from these measures.
Gerstner, M. (2015) -
Geyer, Wilh. (1895) -
Gherghel, I. & Strugariu, A. & Pricop, E. & Zamfirescu, S. (2008) -
Identifying areas in which protected and threatened species occur represents the first step in establishing a proper management plan. The aim of the present paper is to present our preliminary observations on the herpetofauna and its habitats from the Northern Go¬mani Mountains together with arguments in favor of urgently designating it an oficial and legal strictly protected area. In the target area we have identified 12 species of amphibians (Salamandra salamandra, Triturus cristatus, Lissotriton vulgaris, Lissotriton montandoni, Mesotriton alpestris, Bombina variegate, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria, Pelophylax ridibundus and Pelophylax kl. esculentus) and 6 species of reptiles (Anguis fragilis, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Zootoca vivipara, Natrix natrix and Vipera berus). Since all these species are protected by the national and European legislation, we strongly recommend that the are be urgently protected.
Ghielmi, S. & Bergò, P.E. & Andreone, F. (2006) -
We provide new distribution data about Zootoca vivipara and Vipera berus in Piedmont (NW Italy). The former species has been reported for: Bognanco (VB), Sessera (BI), Mastallone (VC), Rimella (VC), and Strona (VB) valleys. The adder, on the other han dm has been observed in Sorba (VC) and Strona (VB) valleys. Comments on these new records are also provided.
Ghielmi, S. & Bernasconi, R. & Vigano, A. (2000) -
Ghielmi, S. & Giovine, G. & Nenegon, M. & Lapini, L. & Surget-Groba, Y. & Heulin, B. (2004) -
Ghielmi, S. & Heulin, B. & Surget-Groba, Y. & Guillaume, C.P (2001) -
Ghielmi, S. & Menegon, M. (2004) -
Ghira, I. & Venczel, M. & Covaciu-Marcov, S. & Mara, G. & Tiberiu, P.G. (2002) -
Ghiurca, D. & Rosu, S. & Gherghel, I. (2005) -
In the researched area we identified 14 amphibian species: (Salamandra salamndra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus alpestris, Triturus montandoni, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Pelobates fuscus, Hyla arborea, Rana ridibunda, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria) and 8 reptilian species (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Zootoca vivipara, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, Elaphe longissima, Coronella austriaca, Vipera berus). Within the region we identified species quoted (Cog_lniceanu et al 2000) to have the lowest altitudinal limit of their spreading area at much higher altitudes. The species Triturus montandoni was identified at 320 m altitude at Agârcia and Doamna. Most of the amphibian and reptilian species are not endangered in the researched area.
Gibson, J.A. (2002) -
Giersburg, H. (1922) -
Gilpin, H.G.B. (1969) -
Giovine, G. (1993) -
Amphibians and reptiles of the Parco Regionale dei Colli di Bergamo. -- This article considers the herpetofauna of the Parco Regionale dei Colli di Bergamo that is composed of ten species of Amphibians and nine of Reptiles. The species are those one would expect to find in a similar landscape. Among these is relevant to mention Bombina variegata, now rare in Lombardy, and Rana latastei. The Author analyzes the corological categories noting a certain predominance of the European species (68%) on the Eurocentroasiatic (22%) and the Italic (10%) ones. The study of the microcommunitiesm has evidenced three fundamental models: the m. of the submediterranean wood (with prevalence of Reptiles), the m. of the umid environments (with prevalence of Amphibians) and the m. of the damp woods (with the typical species Salamandra salamandra).
Giovine, G. (1997) -
Giovine, G. & Ferrari, S. & Murelli, A. (2010) -
The structure of an oviparous population of lizard Zootoca vivipara carniolica (belonging to OS3 haplotype) from the Orobian Prealps (Central Prealps, Lombardy, Italy), and the morphological differences among individuals, were investigated. This study reports the first biometric data and pholidosis an Italian population of Z. v. carniolica. Further, sexual dimorphism and sex ratio were analyzed. In the studied lizard population inter-sexual differences are similar to those reported on the nominal species, while the sex ratio was skewed towards female individuals.
Giovine, G. & Ghielmi, S. & Cornetti, L. & Vernesi, C. (2016) -
Analysis of the distribution, haplotypes and conservation of the viviparous lizard, Zootoca vivipara vivipara (Jacquin, 1787) and the oviparous subspecies, Zootoca vivipara carniolica (Mayer, Böhme, Tiedemann & Bischoff, 2000) in the Bergamasque Prealps. -- In this study we analysed the distribution of two subspecies of the viviparous, Zootoca vivipara (Jacquin, 1787) in Bergamasque Prealps-Orobic Alps. The project was commissioned by “Parco delle Orobie Bergamasche” (Anfi.Oro.Project 2008/2011); the aim of this project was to further investigate the ecological distributional, conservational and genetic aspects about this lizard. Over the course of the study it emerged that the viviparous subspecies (Zootoca vivipara vivipara) shows a broader distributional range in comparison with the oviparous populations (Zootoca vivipara carniolica, Mayer, Böhme, Tiedemann. & Bischoff, 2000). Z. v. vivipara is present along the watershed between the Brembana Valley and Valtellina, almost entirely throughout the Seriana Valley and it is the only subspecies present in Scalve Valley. Z .v. carniolica is quite common in medium to high areas of the Brembana Valley, it is more localised in the Seriana Valley, and absent in Scalve Valley. An area of sintopy between the two subspecies was documented for the first time in Italy. Genetic analysis revealed five different haplotypes of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b, across Orobie Alps; two haplotypes belong to the viviparous subspecies, and three haplotypes belong to oviparous one. Our results underlined that Z. v. vivipara shows a higher capacity to inhabit different types of habitat in a broad altitudinal range, as opposed to Z. v. carniolica which occupies fewer types of habitat over a reduced altitudinal range.The two subspecies appear to be vicariant, since they occupy reasonably differing areas and altitudes.The oviparous subspecies (Z. v. carniolica) might be considered at risk in term of progressive loss of habitat, mainly due to reduction of grazing activities and consequent increase of woodland. Conversely,a considerable overlap of their habitats has also been observed. An analysis of conservational problems has shown that the oviparous subspecies (Z. v. carniolica) might be considered at risk in terms of a progressive loss of habitat,mainly due to reduction of pastures and a consequent increase of wooded areas
Gislén, T. & H. Kauri (1959) -
Glandt, D. (1976) -
The two lizards Lacerta agilis and Lacerta vivipara show on one hand the tendency of ecological exclusion (from the view of landscape ecology as weil as habitat ecology) on the other hand this exclusion is rather incomplete. Habitats suitable for both species, especially those located at the edges of woods, are potential areas for mixed popula- tions. The stability of these mixed populations seems to be given mainly by !ittle abundance of both species; banishment by competition (L. vivipara by L. agilis) seems to be doubtful.
Glandt, D. (1977) -
In a previous work (GLANDT 1976) several ecological conditions had been described which allow rhe constitution of mixed popularions berween Lacerta agilis and Lacerta vivipara. The present work is a discussion on the possibility of stability wirhin such bispecific situations. The hypothesis is pur forward that on principal such situations can be at equilibrium, i. e. ehe srability seems not to become dynamic by any interspecific competition. This hypothesis is supported by rhe low abundance of borh species (adults), furthermore by low aggressive nature of the two species (especially Lacerta vivipara) and by spatial separation of juvenile Lacerta vivipara specimens within rhe two investigared popularions. On rhe orher hand there are two points which could endanger the hypo- thesis: the feeding factor and the time factor. Competitive exclusion between ehe two species could take a very long time, therefore further long time studies are necessary.
Glandt, D. (1979) -
(1) Between 1968 and 1978 observations on· the habitat ecology of Lacerta agilis (Sand lizard) and Lacerta vivipara (Common lizard) were made in the lowland of North West Germany (fig. 1). The 27 habitats investigated contained ten Lacerta agilis populations, twelve L. vivipara populations, and five mixed populations of both species.
(2) The two species show a different habitat selection. The Sand lizard is dominant- ly found on loose sandy soils which are weil drained (fig. 2, 4, and 5). A substratum like this seems ·w be a basic habitat requirement because this species has to lay eggs into a loose and only moderate moist material (see LIBERMAN & PoKROVSKAJA 1943). The Com- mcn lizard on the other hand is dominantly found on loamy and clayey soils which are rather moist (fig. 4 and 5), and further on peat bogs. This species as an ovo-viviparous one does not need any specific `external` substratum for the development of embryos. Furthermore this species has no physiological mechanism for regulating transpiration as it is found in the Sand lizard (see REICHUNG 1957).
(3) The vegetation structure of the most Sand lizard habitats is a low dense cover (grass, bushes) interspersed with patches of bare ground (fig. 2 and 6), whereas the Com- mon lizard is found dominantly in habitats with very dense low vegetation (fig. 3 and 6). A vegetation structure like this seems tobe important because this species has to regulate its water economy only by behaviour.
(4) The different habitat selection of both the species reduces interspecific com- petition. But as there is a partial overlap of habitat requirements (fig. 5 and 6) mixed populations exist. Whether interspecific competition influences the ecological distribution pattern of the two species is not known so far.
(5) In some parts of the Federal Republic of Germany the Sand lizard seems now tobe endangered. The Optimum habitats in the study area (fig. 1) are sand dunes and sandy terraces with a patchy heath vegetation (fig. 2). In such areas an active habitat management is required to safe at least the most important colonies. A detailed proposal for colony conservation is given.
Glandt, D. (1987) -
Glandt, D. (1988) -
Glandt, D. (1991) -
Glandt, D. (1995) -
Glandt, D. (2001) -
Glandt, D. (2006) -
Glandt, D. (2010) -
Glandt, D. (2011) -
Glandt, D. & Kronshage, A. & Rehage, H.O. & Meier, E. & Kemper, A. & Temme, F. (1995) -
lm Zeitraum 1981 bis 1991 wurde die Amphibien- und Reptilienfauna des Kreises Steinlurt (Nordrhein-Westfalen) kartiert. Dabei wurden 18 autochthone Arten (Amphibia 12, Reptilia 6) nachgewiesen. 6 Amphibienarten (fsichmolch, Bergmolch, Erdkröte, Laubfrosch, Grasfrosch, Wasserfrosch-Komplex) und 3 Reptilienarten (Blindschleiche, Zaun- und Waldeidechse) sind im gesamten Kreisgebiet bzw. in allen Naturräumen vorhanden. Der Fadenmolch lindet sich nur im Hügelland. Die 3 Schlangenarten sind nur lückig (Ringelnatter) bzw. punktuell verbreitet (Kreuzotter, Schlingnatter), 42 % det Amphibien- und 50 % der Reptilienarten mußten in eine Rote Liste der im Kreise Steinlurt gefährdeten Arten aulgenommen werden. Neben der aktuellen Verbreitung sind ökologische und phänologische Daten tür jede Arl zusammengetragen.
Gleed-Owen, C. (2005) -
Godin, J. (2002) -
Rarity degree, evolution of distribution and particularities of herpetofauna from Region Nord .– Pas-de-Calais. After giving a review of species (natives, introduced or probably introduced and mentioned by mistake) from Region Nord .– Pas-de-Calais, cartography of observations has been carried out. It permit to allocate a regional rarity rating to each species according to the surface area occupied and to reckon the evolution of distribution by the comparison of actual distribution area (surface occupied between 1995 to 2000) to the potential area. The comparison of species frequencies between coalfield and the rest of the region conduces to bring to the fore the importance of secondaries habitats being the result of mine development on distribution and preservation of some species.
Godin, J. & Godin, F. (2010) -
A la date du 01 septembre 2010, et pour la période 1995-2008, 450 observateurs ont communiqué 5423 fiches d’inventaire à la centrale herpétologique régionale, récapitulant 12449 observations . L’herpétofaune régionale autochtone et/ou introduite compte actuellement 18 espèces d’Amphibiens et 9 espèces de Reptiles. Leur distribution géographique est présentée dans la maille 10x10 km basée sur le carroyage Lambert Zone 1.
Goldfuß, O. (1886) -
Gonalez-Suarez, M. & Mugabo, M. & Decenciere, B. & Perret, S. & Claesen, D. & Galliard, J.-F. le (2011) -
1. Understanding proximate determinants of predation rates is a central question in ecology. Studies often use functional response (density dependent) or allometric (mass dependent) models but approaches that consider multiple factors are critical to capture the complexity in predator–prey interactions. We present a novel comprehensive approach to understand predation rates based on field data obtained from a vertebrate predator. 2. Estimates of food consumption and prey abundance were obtained from 21 semi-natural populations of the lizard Zootoca vivipara. We identified the most parsimonious feeding rate function exploring allometric, simple functional response and allometric functional response models. Each group included effects of sex and weather conditions. 3. Allometric models reveal the importance of predator mass and sex: larger females have the highest natural feeding rates. Functional response models show that the effect of prey density is best represented by a Holling type II response model with a mass, sex and weather dependent attack rate and a constant handling time. However, the best functional response model only received moderate support compared to simpler allometric models based only on predator mass and sex. 4. Despite this limited effect of prey densities on feeding rates, we detected a significant negative relationship between an index of preferred prey biomass and lizard density. 5. Functional response models that ignore individual variation are likely to misrepresent trophic interactions. However, simpler models based on individual traits may be best supported by some data than complex allometric functional responses. These results illustrate the importance of considering individual, population and environmental effects while also exploring simple models.
Goncharov, A.G. (2013) -
Гончаров, А.Г. (2013) -
Goncharov, A.G. (2016) -
Гончаров, А.Г. (2016) -
González-Suárez, M. & Galliard, J.-F. le & Claessen, D. (2011) -
The consequences of within-cohort (i.e., among-individual) variation for population dynamics are poorly understood, in particular for the case where life history is density dependent. We develop a physiologically structured population model that incorporates individual variation among and within cohorts and allows us to explore the intertwined relationship between individual life history and population dynamics. Our model is parameterized for the lizard Zootoca vivipara and reproduces well the species’ dynamics and life history. We explore two common mechanisms that generate within-cohort variation: variability in food intake and variability in birth date. Predicted population dynamics are inherently very stable and do not qualitatively change when either of these sources of individual variation is introduced. However, increased within-cohort variation in food intake leads to changes in morphology, with longer but skinnier individuals, even though mean food intake does not change. Morphological changes result from a seemingly universal nonlinear relationship between growth and resource availability but may become apparent only in environments with strongly fluctuating resources. Overall, our results highlight the importance of using a mechanistic framework to gain insights into how different sources of intraspecific variability translate into life-history and populationdynamic changes.
Gorelov, M.S. (1995) -
Gorman, G.C. (1969) -
Karyotype data are presented for 12 species of lacertid lizards. Of these, 4 Acanthodactylus, 2 Eremias, 1 Ophisops, and 4 Lacerta have n = 19, with all chromosomes acrocentric. This is the typical lacertid karyotype, as reported in previous literature. One species, Lacerta parva, is quite different from all the others. The haploid number is 12, consisting of 7 pairs of metacentric macrochromosomes and 5 pairs of microchromosomes. The fundamental number (number of arms in the karyotype) is the same in L. parva as in all the other species studied. The possibility of female sex chromosomal heteromorphism is raised, but data are not sufficient to confirm this.
Gosá, A. (1987) -
La observación de ejemplares de P. muralis y P. hispanica en la línea de costa que contacta con el mar, ha permitido obtener información más amplia sobre su distribución en el área septentrional más extrema, así como del di- ferente uso que hacen del nicho espacial. Ambas se revelan, una vez más, como especies antropófilas, apareciendo preferentemente P. muralis sobre acantilados de sustrato calizo y suelo cubierto de vegetación, frente a P. his- panica, que prefiere el sustrato areniscoso y suelos más despejados.
Los datos conocidos sobre su distribución, junto con los aquí aportados, permiten esbozar un esquema biogeográfico, en el que lo más destacable se- ría la penetración que, a través de ciertos valles térmicos interiores, ha se- guido P. hispanica -junto con otras formas termófilas de la herpetofauna- , para colonizar el área costera, donde la suavidad de las condiciones climáti- cas ha facilitado su asentamiento.
Graf, P. (2007) -
In den vergangenen Jahrzehnten hat die Zauneidechse (Lacerta agilis LINNAEUS 1758) besonders durch die Intensivierung der Landwirtschaft gravierende Bestandeseinbrüche erlitten. In der aktuellen Roten Liste der gefährdeten Reptilienarten der Schweiz (2005) wird sie als gefährdet (vulnerable) eingestuft. Etwa 20% aller bekannten Vorkommen in der Schweiz liegen heute innerhalb eines 40 m breiten Streifens entlang von Bahnlinien. Diese wichtigen Lebensräume sind gefährdet, denn die Schweizerischen Bundesbahnen planen darin vielerorts die Erstellung kilometerlanger Lärmschutzwände. Durch diese Bauwerke werden optimale Zauneidechsenhabitate in Fragmente zerstückelt. Zusätzlich beschatten die rund 2 m hohen Lärmschutzwände, je nach Exposition, beträchtliche Teile des potenziellen Lebensraums. Dehalb stellt sich die Frage, ob sich die Zauneidechse unter solchen Bedingungen längerfristig halten und fortpflanzen kann. In dieser Arbeit wurde der Einfluss der Beschattung auf die Kondition und den Fortpflanzungserfolg von Zauneidechsen untersucht. Zu diesem Zweck wurden zwei Experimente durchgeführt: In einem ersten Experiment wurden im Freiland bereits befruchtete Weibchen gefangen und im Labor bei unterschiedlichen Temperaturbedingungen gehalten. Die Temperatur wurde variiert durch unterschiedlich lange Beleuchtungsdauer mit wärmespendenden Glühbirnen, unter denen sich die Echsenweibchen „sonnen“ konnten. Ihr Verhalten, die Körpertemperatur, die Gewichtsveränderungen vor und nach der Eiablage sowie ihre Reproduktionsleistung wurden in Abhängigkeit von der Beleuchtungsdauer analysiert. Im zweiten Experiment wurden die Eier dieser Weibchen einerseits im Labor unter verschiedenen Temperaturbedingungen, andererseits in Freilandgehegen mit und ohne künstliche Beschattung bis nach dem Schlüpfen der Jungtiere aufgezogen. Als abhänginge Variablen wurden Inkubationsdauer, Schlupfrate sowie Gewicht und Körperlänge der geschlüpften Jungtiere erfasst. Die Resultate zeigten, dass die „kalten“ Weibchen (die einem „Schatten-Faktor“ ausgesetzt wurden) eine deutlich reduzierte Fitness erfuhren, verglichen mit Weibchen ohne „Schatten-Faktor“: Erstens erfolgte die Eiablage später im Jahr, zweitens war die Inkubationsdauer tendenziell länger und drittens schlüpften kleinere und leichtere Jungtiere. Eine klare Antwort gaben auch die enormen Unterschiede der ermittelten Schlupfraten. Nur aus der Hälfte der unter Lärmschutzwandbedingung vergrabenen Eier schlüpfte jeweils ein Jungtier, im Vergleich zu einer 88 %-igen Schlupfrate unter nicht manipulierten Bedingungen! Zusammengenommen zeigten die Resultate ein deutliches Bild: Der Schattenwurf einer Lärmschutzwand hatte einen negativen Einfluss auf den Reproduktionserfolg der Zauneidechsen und könnte mittelfristig einen massiven Rückgang oder sogar das Erlöschen der Population bewirken.
Graham, S.A. (2018) -
After years of decline, resulting in the extinction of the sand lizard Lacerta agilis in Wales, the species has now been returned to several dune system sites which also contain the viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara. As dune system habitats are becoming an increasingly important habitat type in the UK for L. agilis, providing a relatively safe haven for these and Z. vivipara populations from anthropogenic change, it is time to ensure the long-term survival of these populations. In this study, environmentally advantageous conditions for detection of both species were established for three dune system sites in North-West Wales. Surface temperature, UV, cloud cover and wind speed were identified as being the most influential detection parameters, with cloud cover and wind speed noted as having a negative influence on detection. Furthermore, favoured habitat was identified and ‘suitable habitat’ modelled for both species. Across the research sites both species were found to utilise habitats of a similar composition with reintroduced L. agilis favouring specific habitat features such as basking direction and degree of angle of their basking position. Habitat and site utilisation models indicate that for highly mobile dune systems L. agilis dispersal across a site is not of concern. For static or eroding dune systems, large, connected areas of favoured habitats are absent. In this situation, L. agilis dispersal (from introduction locations) is limited. Mean yearly L. agilis dispersal distances of 19.64 m – 28 m represents an approximate trend across the three research sites. The physical presence of L. agilis alone, however, does not constitute a successful reintroduction. Genetic diversity of the reintroduced populations was observed to be lower than those calculated in naturally occurring British populations. This is a matter of conservation concern, with a number of targeted mitigatory measures proposed to improve the genetic integrity, reducing the chance of population extinction(s). Mean time to extinction estimates indicate that for populations on highly mobile dune systems population survival times of between 11.4 yrs and 63.1 yrs could be expected. This is reduced for static or eroding dune system sites. The implications of these findings for the conservation of L. agilis and Z. vivipara are discussed in the context of current challenges and future management requirements. It is hoped that this thesis will help guide the future development of the reintroduction program, and in addition, provide a sound scientific basis for the future management of reintroduction sites and species monitoring.
Graitson, E. (2001) -
Graitson, E. (2002) -
Graitson, E. (2005) -
Graitson, E. (2006) -
Graitson, E. (2007) -